× NICE uses cookies to make the site better.  Learn more
A-Z
Topics
Latest

Organ donation for transplantation

About

What is covered

This pathway covers the improvement of donor identification and consent rates for deceased organ donation.
A significant proportion of people in England and Wales would wish to donate their organs after death for the purpose of transplantation. This guideline recognises the complexities that arise owing to the majority of potential organ donors lacking the capacity to be directly involved in decision making at the time of their death. It seeks to promote the identification and fulfilment of these wishes through:
  • more effective identification and referral of potential organ donors
  • a more informed, considered and timely approach to consent for donation which is based primarily on identifying the wishes of the individual whenever known and however recorded.

Updates

Updates to this pathway

21 December 2016 Update to add a footnote on diagnosis of brain stem death in infants to identification criteria and information about the NHS Organ Donor Register to seeking consent to organ donation.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or service users. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is not mandatory and does not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Local commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to enable the interactive flowchart to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients or service users wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Short Text

Everything NICE has said on improving donor identification and consent rates for deceased organ donation for transplantation in an interactive flowchart

What is covered

This pathway covers the improvement of donor identification and consent rates for deceased organ donation.
A significant proportion of people in England and Wales would wish to donate their organs after death for the purpose of transplantation. This guideline recognises the complexities that arise owing to the majority of potential organ donors lacking the capacity to be directly involved in decision making at the time of their death. It seeks to promote the identification and fulfilment of these wishes through:
  • more effective identification and referral of potential organ donors
  • a more informed, considered and timely approach to consent for donation which is based primarily on identifying the wishes of the individual whenever known and however recorded.

Updates

Updates to this pathway

21 December 2016 Update to add a footnote on diagnosis of brain stem death in infants to identification criteria and information about the NHS Organ Donor Register to seeking consent to organ donation.

Sources

NICE guidance and other sources used to create this interactive flowchart.

Quality standards

Quality statements

Effective interventions library

Effective interventions library

Successful effective interventions library details

Implementation

Information for the public

NICE produces information for the public that summarises, in plain English, the recommendations that NICE makes to healthcare and other professionals.
NICE has written information for the public explaining its guidance on each of the following topics.

Pathway information

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or service users. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is not mandatory and does not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Local commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to enable the interactive flowchart to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients or service users wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Supporting information

Qualifying relationship

The following are qualifying relationships for the purposes of the Human Tissue Act 2004. Consent should be obtained from the available person ranked highest in the following list:
  • spouse or partner (including civil or same sex partner)
  • parent or child (in this context a 'child' can be any age)
  • brother or sister
  • grandparent or grandchild
  • niece or nephew
  • stepfather or stepmother
  • half-brother or half-sister
  • friend of long standing.

Glossary

a set of instructions given in advance by individuals specifying what actions should be taken for their health in the event that they are no longer able to make decisions due to illness or incapacity. It does not always have to be written down, although most are
death diagnosed after irreversible cessation of brainstem function and confirmed using neurological criteria. The diagnosis of death is made while the body of the person is attached to an artificial ventilator and the heart is still beating
death diagnosed and confirmed following cardiorespiratory arrest
a set of clinical criteria used to indicate a high probability of death, which is used to define a standard point in care when the hospital is expected to initiate referral
family, friends, partners and anyone who knows the patient who can be, but is not necessarily, in a qualifying relationship
a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) is a legal document that enables a person who has capacity and is over 18 to choose another person or people (attorney[s]) to make decisions on their behalf. A health and welfare LPA is for decisions about both health and personal welfare, such as where to live, day-to-day care or having medical treatment
multidisciplinary team
a nominated representative is a person appointed by the patient to represent the patient after their death in relation to consent for organ donation. The appointment may have been made orally or in writing
a healthcare professional with specific expertise in the promotion and facilitation of the entire donation process through working with all staff in critical care areas to support and maximise organ/tissue donation and providing support and information to families of potential donors

Paths in this pathway

Pathway created: February 2012 Last updated: December 2016

© NICE 2017

Recently viewed