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Diabetes in pregnancy

About

What is covered

This NICE Pathway covers managing diabetes and its complications in women who are planning pregnancy or are already pregnant. It aims to improve the diagnosis of gestational diabetes and help women with diabetes to self-manage their blood glucose levels before and during pregnancy.

Blood glucose and plasma glucose

'Blood glucose' is the more commonly used term. However, a lot of the evidence this guideline is based on uses 'plasma' rather than 'blood' glucose, and patient-held glucose meters and monitoring systems are calibrated to plasma glucose equivalents. Because of this, in this NICE Pathway we use the term 'blood glucose', except when referring to specific concentration values.

Updates

Updates to this NICE Pathway

16 December 2020 Updated on publication of the NICE guideline update on diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period (NICE guideline NG3).
17 August 2016 Diabetes in adults (NICE quality standard 6) removed.
13 April 2016 Antenatal care (NICE quality standard 22) added.
18 January 2016 Diabetes in pregnancy (NICE quality standard 109) added.
24 February 2015 The new recommendations from the NICE guideline update have been added.
30 October 2014 IFCC units added for HbA1c levels.

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Short Text

Everything NICE has said on managing diabetes and its complications before, during and after pregnancy in an interactive flowchart

What is covered

This NICE Pathway covers managing diabetes and its complications in women who are planning pregnancy or are already pregnant. It aims to improve the diagnosis of gestational diabetes and help women with diabetes to self-manage their blood glucose levels before and during pregnancy.

Blood glucose and plasma glucose

'Blood glucose' is the more commonly used term. However, a lot of the evidence this guideline is based on uses 'plasma' rather than 'blood' glucose, and patient-held glucose meters and monitoring systems are calibrated to plasma glucose equivalents. Because of this, in this NICE Pathway we use the term 'blood glucose', except when referring to specific concentration values.

Updates

Updates to this NICE Pathway

16 December 2020 Updated on publication of the NICE guideline update on diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period (NICE guideline NG3).
17 August 2016 Diabetes in adults (NICE quality standard 6) removed.
13 April 2016 Antenatal care (NICE quality standard 22) added.
18 January 2016 Diabetes in pregnancy (NICE quality standard 109) added.
24 February 2015 The new recommendations from the NICE guideline update have been added.
30 October 2014 IFCC units added for HbA1c levels.

Sources

NICE guidance and other sources used to create this interactive flowchart.
Diabetes in pregnancy (2016) NICE quality standard 109
Antenatal care (2012 updated 2016) NICE quality standard 22
AI technologies for detecting diabetic retinopathy (2021) NICE medtech innovation briefing 265
Dexcom G6 for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (2020) NICE medtech innovation briefing 233
FreeStyle Libre for glucose monitoring (2017) NICE medtech innovation briefing 110

Quality standards

Quality statements

High-dose folic acid

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Women with diabetes planning a pregnancy are prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.

Rationale

High-dose folic acid supplements (5 mg/day) should be prescribed for women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy from at least 3 months before conception until 12 weeks of gestation. This is because these women are at greater risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect. The benefits of high-dose folic acid supplementation should be discussed with the woman during preconception counselling as part of her preparation for pregnancy.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
Evidence of local arrangements and written clinical protocols to ensure that women with diabetes planning a pregnancy are prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.
Numerator – the number in the denominator prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.
Numerator – the number in the denominator prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
Outcome
Neural tube defects.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in primary and secondary care) ensure that they have systems and processes in place so that women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy are prescribed 5 mg/day folic acid from at least 3 months before conception.
Healthcare professionals (GPs, community midwives and healthcare professionals in joint diabetes and antenatal care teams) ensure that they prescribe 5 mg/day folic acid for women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy, from at least 3 months before conception. Healthcare professionals also ensure that they advise women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy about the benefits of taking high-dose folic acid as part of preconception counselling.
Commissioners (NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission pre-pregnancy services in which 5 mg/day folic acid is prescribed for women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy, from at least 3 months before conception.
Women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy are given a prescription for high-dose folic acid (one 5 mg tablet a day) for at least 3 months before they get pregnant and for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. This helps to lower the chances of the baby having a condition called a neural tube defect (for example, spina bifida).

Source guidance

First contact with joint diabetes and antenatal care team

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Women with pre-existing diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of their pregnancy being confirmed.

Rationale

Women with diabetes who become pregnant need extra care in addition to routine antenatal care. Members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team are able to ensure that specialist care is delivered to minimise adverse pregnancy outcomes. Immediate access to the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of her pregnancy being confirmed will help to ensure that a woman’s diabetes is controlled during early pregnancy, when there is an increased risk of fetal loss and anomalies. It will also help to ensure that the woman’s care is planned appropriately throughout her pregnancy.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to provide a joint diabetes and antenatal care team.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that women with pre-existing diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of their pregnancy being confirmed.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of women with pre-existing diabetes who are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of their pregnancy being confirmed.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of their pregnancy being confirmed.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes.
Outcome
a) Maternal satisfaction.
Data source: Local data collection. The NHS Maternity Survey collects data on maternal satisfaction with experience of birth.
b) Perinatal morbidity.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Perinatal mortality.
Data source: Local data collection.
d) Maternal adverse outcomes.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in secondary care) ensure that referral pathways are in place so that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of the pregnancy being confirmed.
Healthcare professionals (in joint diabetes and antenatal care teams) ensure that they see pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes within 1 week of the pregnancy being confirmed.
Commissioners (NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission joint diabetes and antenatal care teams that see pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes within 1 week of the pregnancy being confirmed.
Pregnant women who had diabetes before they became pregnant have an appointment with a joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of telling a doctor, nurse or midwife that they are pregnant.

Source guidance

The 1-week timeframe is derived from expert consensus to support measurability for achieving ‘immediate contact’, which is the wording within the source recommendation in the NICE guideline on diabetes in pregnancy. It is considered a practical timeframe to enable stakeholders to measure performance.

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Joint diabetes and antenatal care team
A clinic with a multidisciplinary team consisting of an obstetrician, a diabetes physician, a diabetes specialist nurse, a midwife and a dietitian. [Department of Health and Social Care’s national service framework for diabetes]
Pregnancy confirmed
The notification of a positive pregnancy test to a healthcare professional. This may be a GP, practice nurse, midwife or member of the secondary care diabetes team. [Expert opinion]

Measuring HbA1c levels at booking appointment

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment.

Rationale

Measuring a woman’s HbA1c levels can be used to determine the level of risk for her pregnancy. Women who had diabetes before they became pregnant should have their HbA1c levels measured during early pregnancy to identify the risk of potential adverse pregnancy outcomes and to ensure that any identified risks are managed.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
Evidence of local arrangements and written clinical protocols to ensure that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
Process
Proportion of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes who have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
Outcome
a) Mode of birth.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
b) Adverse fetal outcomes.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
c) Maternal diabetic complications.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in secondary care) ensure that systems are in place so that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment.
Healthcare professionals (in antenatal care and in joint diabetes and antenatal care teams) ensure that they measure the HbA1c levels of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes at the booking appointment.
Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission services in which pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment.
Pregnant women who had diabetes before they became pregnant have their HbA1c levels measured at their booking appointment (their first official antenatal appointment).

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Booking appointment
A woman with diabetes will usually have a booking appointment with the joint diabetes and antenatal care team by 10 weeks of pregnancy. In some cases this appointment may take place earlier in the pregnancy. [NICE’s guideline on diabetes in pregnancy and expert opinion]

Equality and diversity considerations

Pregnant women with diabetes and complex social needs may be less likely to access or maintain contact with antenatal care services, and may present to a service later than 10 weeks. Services should give special consideration to these groups of women and ensure that they have their HbA1c levels measured at the earliest opportunity.  

Referral for retinal assessment

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are referred at their booking appointment for retinal assessment.

Rationale

Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes can have an increased risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy. Women should therefore be screened for diabetic retinopathy regularly during pregnancy. Early assessment ensures that treatment can start as soon as possible, and can act as a baseline to observe any further deterioration. A referral for retinal assessment should be offered at the booking appointment unless that woman has had an assessment in the last 3 months.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
Evidence of local arrangements and written clinical protocols to ensure that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are referred at their booking appointment for retinal assessment.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes who are referred at their booking appointment for retinal assessment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are referred at their booking appointment for retinal assessment.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes attending a booking appointment who have not had retinal assessment in the last 3 months.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes who have a retinal assessment in the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have a retinal assessment in the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes referred at their booking appointment for a retinal assessment.
Data source: NHS Digital National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit and local data collection.
Outcome
a) Rates of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Diabetic retinopathy progression during pregnancy.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in primary and secondary care) ensure that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are referred at the booking appointment for a retinal assessment if they have not had a retinal assessment in the last 3 months.
Healthcare professionals (in joint diabetes and antenatal care teams) ensure that they refer pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes at their booking appointment for a retinal assessment, unless the woman has had a retinal assessment in the last 3 months.
Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission services in which pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are referred at their booking appointment for a retinal assessment if they have not had a retinal assessment in the last 3 months. Commissioners also ensure that services communicate the results of retinal assessments to the joint diabetes and antenatal care team.
Pregnant women who had diabetes before they became pregnant are referred at their booking appointment for a screening check for eye damage (retinopathy) if they have not had this type of check in the last 3 months.

Source guidance

Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period. NICE guideline NG3 (2015, updated 2020), recommendation 1.3.25

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Retinal assessment
A retinal assessment should be done by digital imaging with mydriasis (dilation of the pupils) using tropicamide, in accordance with the National Screening Committee’s diabetic retinopathy screening programme. [NICE's guideline on diabetes in pregnancy, recommendation 1.3.25]
Booking appointment
A woman with diabetes will usually have a booking appointment with the joint diabetes and antenatal care team by 10 weeks of pregnancy. In some cases this appointment may take place earlier in the pregnancy. [NICE's guideline on diabetes in pregnancy and expert opinion]

Equality and diversity considerations

Pregnant women with diabetes and complex social needs may be less likely to access or maintain contact with antenatal care services, and may present to a service later than 10 weeks. Services should give special consideration to these groups of women and ensure that they are referred for a retinal assessment at the earliest opportunity.

Review after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of diagnosis.

Rationale

Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes should have specialist advice and treatment in a timely manner, and should be reviewed by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of being diagnosed. The joint team should provide the woman with advice, including why gestational diabetes occurs, potential risks and complications, and treatments aimed at reducing those risks.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to provide a joint diabetes and antenatal care team.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements and written clinical protocols to ensure that women diagnosed with gestational diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of diagnosis.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes who are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of diagnosis.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of diagnosis.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with gestational diabetes.
Outcome
a) Maternal satisfaction.
Data source: The NHS Maternity Survey collects data on maternal satisfaction with experience of birth.
b) Perinatal morbidity.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Perinatal mortality.
Data source: Local data collection.
d) Maternal adverse outcomes.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in secondary and community care) ensure that referral pathways are in place so that women diagnosed with gestational diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of diagnosis.
Healthcare professionals (in joint diabetes and antenatal care teams) ensure that they see women diagnosed with gestational diabetes within 1 week of diagnosis.
Commissioners (NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission services in which women diagnosed with gestational diabetes are seen by members of the joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of diagnosis.
Pregnant women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes (that is, diabetes that develops during pregnancy) have an appointment with a joint diabetes and antenatal care team within 1 week of their diagnosis.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Diagnosis of gestational diabetes
Diagnose gestational diabetes (using a 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test) if the woman has either:
  • a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.6 mmol/litre or above or
  • a 2 hour plasma glucose level of 7.8 mmol/litre or above.
[Adapted from NICE's guideline on diabetes in pregnancy, recommendations 1.2.6 and 1.2.8]
Joint diabetes and antenatal care team
A clinic with a multidisciplinary team consisting of an obstetrician, a diabetes physician, a diabetes specialist nurse, a midwife and a dietitian. [Department of Health and Social Care's national service framework for diabetes]

Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels during pregnancy

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women with diabetes are supported to self-monitor their blood glucose levels.

Rationale

Women with diabetes need to be able to self-monitor their blood glucose during pregnancy. Some women with type 2 diabetes and all women with gestational diabetes will not have been monitoring their blood glucose levels at all before pregnancy and will start doing so. For women with type 1 diabetes, and some women with type 2 diabetes, frequency of monitoring will increase from 4 times a day to up to 10 times per day. More frequent monitoring will help women to maintain good blood glucose control throughout pregnancy. This in turn will reduce the risk of adverse outcomes, such as a baby that is large for gestational age, trauma during birth, neonatal hypoglycaemia and perinatal death. The likelihood of induction of labour and caesarean section should also be lower. Support should be provided to ensure that women have access to appropriate blood glucose meters and are prescribed enough testing strips, and know how to use them.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements and written clinical protocols to ensure that pregnant women with diabetes are supported to self-monitor their blood glucose levels.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women with diabetes have access to appropriate blood glucose meters and are prescribed enough testing strips.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women with diabetes who feel supported to self-monitor their blood glucose levels.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who feel supported to self-monitor their blood glucose levels.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women with diabetes who have an appropriate blood glucose meter.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have an appropriate blood glucose meter.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Proportion of pregnant women with diabetes who are prescribed enough blood glucose testing strips.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are prescribed enough blood glucose testing strips.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
a) Adverse fetal outcomes.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Maternal diabetic complications.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in primary and secondary care) ensure that pregnant women with diabetes have an appropriate blood glucose meter and are prescribed enough testing strips, and so are supported to self-monitor their blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
Healthcare professionals (GPs, community midwives and healthcare professionals in joint diabetes and antenatal care teams) support pregnant women with diabetes to self-monitor their blood glucose levels during pregnancy, including ensuring that the woman has an appropriate blood glucose meter and is prescribed enough testing strips.
Commissioners (NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) commission services that ensure that pregnant women with diabetes have an appropriate blood glucose meter and are prescribed enough testing strips, and so are supported to self-monitor their blood glucose levels.
Pregnant women with diabetes are supported to monitor their own blood glucose levels during pregnancy. They are given a blood glucose meter that suits them, and are prescribed enough testing strips for their needs.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Appropriate blood glucose monitor
Ensure that blood glucose meters meet current ISO standards and take the needs of the woman with diabetes into account. [Adapted from NICE’s guideline on type 1 diabetes in adults, recommendation 1.6.17]

Equality and diversity considerations

When advising women to start or increase the frequency of blood glucose monitoring, take into account that some women may be anxious and feel pressure to adjust and overly regulate their blood glucose levels.

Annual HbA1c testing after gestational diabetes

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in pregnancy quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for diabetes in pregnancy and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Women who have had gestational diabetes have an annual HbA1c test.

Rationale

Women who have had gestational diabetes are at increased risk of getting it again in future pregnancies. They are also at higher risk of type 2 diabetes: if they are not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the immediate postnatal period, they are still at high risk of developing it in the future. Early detection of type 2 diabetes by annual HbA1c testing in primary care can delay disease progression and reduce the risk of complications. Annual testing can also reduce the risk of uncontrolled or undetected diabetes in future pregnancies.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
Evidence of local arrangements and written clinical protocols to ensure that women who have had gestational diabetes have an annual HbA1c test.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of women who have had gestational diabetes who have an annual HbA1c test.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have had an HbA1c test in the last 12 months.
Denominator – the number of women who have had gestational diabetes and whose baby was born at least 12 months ago.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Earlier detection of type 2 diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (in primary care) ensure that systems are in place so that women who have had gestational diabetes have an annual HbA1c test.
Healthcare practitioners (in primary care) ensure that they test HbA1c levels annually for women who have had gestational diabetes.
Commissioners (NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission services that provide annual HbA1c testing for women who have had gestational diabetes.
Women who have had gestational diabetes have the HbA1c levels in their blood measured once a year. This is to check whether they have type 2 diabetes, or are at risk of getting it.

Source guidance

Services – access to antenatal care

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women are supported to access antenatal care, ideally by 10 weeks 0 days.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local services that ensure antenatal care is readily and easily accessible.
Data source: Local data collection. The baseline assessment tool for NICE’s guideline on pregnancy and complex social factors can be used to assess current activity related to recording information for women presenting to antenatal care with complex social needs to inform mapping of the local population and to guide service provision.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to encourage pregnant women to access and maintain contact with antenatal care services.
Data source: Local data collection. The baseline assessment tool for NICE’s guideline on pregnancy and complex social factors can be used to assess current activity related to recording information for women presenting to antenatal care with complex social needs to inform mapping of the local population and to guide service provision.
Process
Proportion of pregnant women missing a scheduled antenatal appointment who are followed up within locally defined timescales.
Numerator – the number in the denominator followed up within locally defined timescales.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women missing a scheduled antenatal appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
a) Pregnant women accessing antenatal care who are seen for booking by 10 weeks 0 days.
Data source: The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on booking appointment dates and estimated dates of delivery. The Care Quality Commission Maternity Services Survey asks the question ‘Roughly how many weeks pregnant were you when you had your ‘booking’ appointment (the appointment where you were given access to your pregnancy notes)?’.
b) Pregnant women accessing antenatal care who are seen for booking by 12 weeks 6 days.
Data source: The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on booking appointment dates and estimated dates of delivery. The Care Quality Commission Maternity Services Survey asks the question ‘Roughly how many weeks pregnant were you when you had your ‘booking’ appointment (the appointment where you were given access to your pregnancy notes)?’.
c) Pregnant women accessing antenatal care who are seen for booking by 20 weeks 0 days.
Data source: The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on booking appointment dates and estimated dates of delivery. The Care Quality Commission Maternity Services Survey asks the question ‘Roughly how many weeks pregnant were you when you had your ‘booking’ appointment (the appointment where you were given access to your pregnancy notes)?’.
d) Median gestation at booking.
Data source: The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on booking appointment dates and estimated dates of delivery. The Care Quality Commission Maternity Services Survey asks the question ‘Roughly how many weeks pregnant were you when you had your ‘booking’ appointment (the appointment where you were given access to your pregnancy notes)?’.
e) Pregnant women accessing antenatal care attend at least the recommended number of antenatal appointments.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to support pregnant women to access antenatal care, ideally by 10 weeks 0 days.
Health and social care professionals support pregnant women to access antenatal care, ideally by 10 weeks 0 days. This includes following up women who have missed a scheduled antenatal appointment.
Commissioners ensure that they commission services that are readily and easily accessible and that support pregnant women to access antenatal care, ideally by 10 weeks 0 days.
Pregnant women are encouraged to see a healthcare professional about their pregnancy as early as possible and have regular check-ups from their midwife or doctor throughout their pregnancy (antenatal care). This may include being contacted by their midwife or doctor if they miss a check-up.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Support to access antenatal care
Commissioners and providers should ensure that antenatal care can be started in a variety of straightforward ways, depending on women’s needs and circumstances, for example, by self-referral, referral by a GP, midwife or another healthcare professional or through a school nurse, community centre or refugee hostel.
At the first antenatal (booking) appointment, discuss antenatal care with the woman (and her partner) and provide her schedule of antenatal appointments (plan 10 routine antenatal appointments with a midwife or doctor for nulliparous women and 7 for parous women).
At the first antenatal (booking) appointment (and later if appropriate), discuss and give information on:
  • what antenatal care involves and why it is important
  • the planned number of antenatal appointments
  • where antenatal appointments will take place
  • which healthcare professionals will be involved in antenatal appointments
  • how to contact the midwifery team for non-urgent advice
  • how to contact the maternity service about urgent concerns, such as pain and bleeding.
[NICE’s guideline on antenatal care, recommendations 1.1.1, 1.1.7, 1.1.8, 1.3.7 and 1.3.8]
Follow-up after a missed appointment may be undertaken by the maternity service or other community-based service the woman is in contact with, such as a children’s centre, addiction service or GP. Follow-up should be via a method of contact that is appropriate to the woman, which may include:
  • text message
  • letter
  • telephone
  • community or home visit.
[NICE’s guideline on pregnancy and complex social factors, recommendation 1.2.8 and expert opinion]

Equality and diversity considerations

Pregnant women include women with complex social needs who may be less likely to access or maintain contact with antenatal care services. Examples of women with complex social needs include, but are not limited to, women who:
  • have a history of substance misuse (alcohol and/or drugs)
  • have recently arrived as a migrant, asylum seeker or refugee
  • have difficulty speaking or understanding English
  • are aged under 20
  • have experienced domestic abuse
  • are living in poverty
  • are homeless.
It is therefore appropriate that localities give special consideration to these groups of women within the measures. NICE’s guideline on pregnancy and complex social factors has recommendations about how to make antenatal care accessible to pregnant women with complex social needs and how to encourage women to maintain ongoing contact with maternity services.

Services – continuity of care

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women are cared for by a named midwife throughout their pregnancy.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements and audit to ensure that pregnant women are cared for by a named midwife throughout their pregnancy.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that systems are in place to coordinate a pregnant woman’s care should her named midwife not be available.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of pregnant women with a named midwife.
Numerator – the number in the denominator with a named midwife.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women accessing antenatal care.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Pregnant women’s satisfaction with the continuity of their antenatal care.
Data source: Local data collection. The Care Quality Commission Maternity Services Survey asks the question ‘At your antenatal check-ups, did you see the same midwife every time?’

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to enable pregnant women to be cared for by a named midwife throughout their pregnancy.
Healthcare professionals follow local systems and guidance to provide continuity of care to pregnant women through the provision of a named midwife.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that enable pregnant women to be cared for by a named midwife throughout their pregnancy.
Pregnant women are cared for a by a named midwife throughout their pregnancy.

Source guidance

Antenatal care. NICE guideline NG201 (2021), recommendation 1.1.12

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Named midwife
Having continuity of carer means that a trusting relationship can be developed between the woman and the healthcare professional who cares for her. The Better Births report by the National Maternity Review defines continuity of carer as consistency in the midwifery team (between 4 and 8 individuals) that provides care for the woman and her baby throughout pregnancy, labour and the postnatal period. A named midwife coordinates the care and takes responsibility for ensuring that the needs of the woman and her baby are met throughout the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods [NICE’s guideline on antenatal care, terms used in this guideline]

Services – record keeping

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women have a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in their maternity notes.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women have a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in their maternity notes.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local audit to monitor the completeness and accuracy of antenatal test results in women’s maternity notes.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of pregnant women accessing antenatal care who have a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in their maternity notes, appropriate to their stage of pregnancy.
Numerator – the number in the denominator with a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in their maternity notes, appropriate to their stage of pregnancy.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women accessing antenatal care.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to maintain a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in women’s maternity notes.
Healthcare professionals ensure that women have a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in their maternity notes.
Commissioners ensure that they commission services that maintain a complete record of the minimum set of antenatal test results in women’s maternity notes.
Pregnant women are given a complete record of the minimum set of their antenatal test results in their maternity notes.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Minimum set of antenatal test results
Table 1 minimum set of tests for routine scheduled antenatal care
Investigation
Timing
Blood pressure
All routine appointments
Urine test for proteinuria
All routine appointments
Full blood count, blood group and rhesus D status
At booking or first scan if booking appointment was not face to face
Height, weight and body mass index
At booking or first scan if booking appointment was not face to face
Sickle cell and thalassaemia screen
At booking
Hepatitis B virus screen
At booking
HIV screen
At booking
Syphilis screen
At booking
Ultrasound scan to determine gestational age and detect multiple pregnancy
Between 11 weeks 2 days and 14 weeks 1 day
Screen for Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and Patau’s syndrome
Offer at booking
Ultrasound scan between 11 weeks 2 days and 14 weeks 1 day
Ultrasound screen for fetal anomalies
Offer at booking
Between 18 weeks 0 days and 20 weeks 6 days
Measure of symphysis fundal height
All routine appointments after 24 weeks 0 days
Full blood count, blood group and antibodies
At 28 weeks
Abdominal palpation to identify possible breech presentation
All routine appointments from 36 weeks 0 days
Note that women should be able to make an informed choice about whether to accept or decline each test, and notes should include a record of any tests offered and declined as well as the results of tests accepted. [NICE’s guideline on antenatal care, schedule of antenatal appointments]

Equality and diversity considerations

Maternity notes and the information within them should be accessible to all women, including women who do not speak or read English and those with additional needs such as physical, sensory or learning disabilities.
Women should be able to choose whether to have all the results of their antenatal tests documented in their maternity notes. This may be particularly important when information is sensitive (for example, positive screening results for HIV, hepatitis B virus and syphilis). Where a woman declines to have antenatal test results documented in her maternity notes, the results should instead be recorded within other medical notes. It is therefore appropriate that localities give special consideration to these groups of women within the measures. NICE’s guideline on pregnancy and complex social factors has recommendations about how to make antenatal care accessible to pregnant women with complex social needs and how to encourage women to maintain ongoing contact with maternity services.

Risk assessment – body mass index

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment are offered personalised advice from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to offer pregnant women the option to have their body mass index calculated and recorded at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment are offered personalised advice from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women accessing antenatal care whose body mass index is calculated and recorded at the booking appointment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose body mass index is recorded at the booking appointment.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women accessing antenatal care.
Data source: The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on the BMI of the mother at booking. Areas may wish to consider setting a local target that reflects expectations that some women may decide not to have their body mass index calculated.
b) Proportion of pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment who are offered personalised advice from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.
Numerator – the number in the denominator offered personalised advice from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection. The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on the BMI of the mother at booking.
Outcome
Women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more feel confident to make decisions about healthy eating and physical activity during their pregnancy.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, local survey.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to offer pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment personalised advice from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.
Healthcare professionals offer women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment personalised advice on healthy eating and physical activity or, if they are not appropriately trained to do this, refer them to an appropriately trained person.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that offer pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment personalised advice from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.
Pregnant women with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more at the booking appointment are offered advice relevant to them from an appropriately trained person on healthy eating and physical activity.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

An appropriately trained person
Someone who can demonstrate expertise and competencies in weight management in pregnancy, including providing advice about nutrition and/or physical activity. This may include obstetricians, GPs, midwives, health visitors, nurses, dietitians, midwifery assistants, support workers and those working in weight management programmes (commercial or voluntary). [Expert opinion]

Equality and diversity considerations

The body mass index threshold may need adapting for different groups of pregnant women (for example, women from certain ethnic groups). A body mass index measure is considered unsuitable for use with those under 18.

Risk assessment – smoking cessation

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women who smoke are referred for evidence-based stop-smoking support at the booking appointment.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements that pregnant women have their smoking status recorded at the booking appointment.
Data source: NHS Digital’s Maternity Services Data Set collects data on smoking status at the booking appointment.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women who smoke are referred for evidence-based stop-smoking support.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women who smoke and opt out of attending evidence-based stop smoking support receive follow-up.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women accessing antenatal care whose smoking status is recorded at the booking appointment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose smoking status is recorded at the booking appointment.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women accessing antenatal care.
Data source: NHS Digital’s Maternity Services Data Set collects data on smoking status at the booking appointment.
b) Proportion of pregnant women who smoke who are referred for evidence-based stop-smoking support at the booking appointment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are referred for evidence-based stop-smoking support.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women who smoke and attend a booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Proportion of pregnant women who smoke and opt out of attending evidence-based stop-smoking support who receive follow-up.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive follow-up.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women who smoke and opt out of attending evidence-based stop-smoking support.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
a) Quit rates for pregnant women.
Data source: Local data collection. NHS Digital’s statistics on NHS Stop Smoking Services in England includes quit rates for pregnant women who set a quit date.
b) Smoking rates in pregnancy.
Data source: NHS Digital Statistics on women's smoking status at time of delivery: England collects data on smoking status at the time of delivery.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to ensure that all pregnant women who smoke are referred for evidence-based stop-smoking support at their booking appointment.
Healthcare professionals refer all pregnant women who smoke for evidence-based stop-smoking support at their booking appointment.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that refer all pregnant women who smoke for evidence-based stop-smoking support at their booking appointment.
Pregnant women who smoke are referred for evidence-based stop-smoking support at their booking appointment.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Referral for evidence-based stop-smoking support
An opt-out referral to receive stop-smoking support should be provided to all pregnant women who:
  • say they smoke or have stopped smoking in the past 2 weeks or
  • have a carbon monoxide reading of 4 parts per million(ppm) or above or
  • have previously been provided with an opt-out referral but have not yet engaged with stop-smoking support.
An opt-out referral to receive stop-smoking support should be first provided at the booking appointment and when appropriate throughout the period of antenatal care. The midwife may provide the pregnant woman with information about the risks to the unborn child of smoking when pregnant and the hazards of exposure to second-hand smoke for both mother and baby. [Adapted from NICE’s guideline on tobacco, recommendations 1.11.11, 1.18.2 and 1.19.3]
Evidence-based stop-smoking support
Interventions and support to stop smoking, regardless of how services are commissioned or set up.
Stop-smoking support for pregnant women should be intensive and ongoing throughout pregnancy and beyond. The professionals involved may include midwives who have been specially trained to help pregnant women who smoke to quit. [Adapted from NICE’s guideline on tobacco, recommendations 1.20.1, 1.23.3 and terms used in this guideline; stop-smoking support]

Risk assessment – gestational diabetes

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women are offered testing for gestational diabetes if they are identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women have their risk factors for gestational diabetes identified and recorded at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment are offered testing for gestational diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment who are offered testing for gestational diabetes.
Numerator – the number in the denominator offered testing for gestational diabetes.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment who receive testing for gestational diabetes.
Numerator – the number of women in the denominator receiving testing for gestational diabetes.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Early identification of women with gestational diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to offer pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment testing for gestational diabetes.
Healthcare professionals offer pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment testing for gestational diabetes.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that offer pregnant women identified as at risk of gestational diabetes at the booking appointment testing for gestational diabetes.
Pregnant women with a higher than normal chance of developing gestational diabetes (a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy) at the booking appointment are offered a test for gestational diabetes.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

At risk of gestational diabetes
Risk factors are:
  • body mass index above 30 kg/m2
  • previous macrosomic baby weighing 4.5 kg or more
  • previous gestational diabetes
  • family history of diabetes (first-degree relative with diabetes)
  • an ethnicity with a high prevalence of diabetes.
Women with any of these risk factors should be offered testing for gestational diabetes. [NICE’s guideline on diabetes in pregnancy, recommendation 1.2.2]
Testing for gestational diabetes
Use the 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to test for gestational diabetes in women with risk factors.
Offer women who have had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy:
  • early self-monitoring of blood glucose or
  • a 75-g 2-hour OGTT as soon as possible after booking (whether in the first or second trimester), and a further 75-g 2-hour OGTT at 24–28 weeks if the results of the first OGTT are normal.
Offer women with any of the other risk factors for gestational diabetes a 75-g 2-hour OGTT at 24–28 weeks. [NICE’s guideline on diabetes in pregnancy, recommendations 1.2.5, 1.2.6 and 1.2.7]

Equality and diversity considerations

Any risk assessment for gestational diabetes should be corrected for ethnicity. Some ethnicities are risk factors for diabetes and people from these groups should be offered testing in accordance with the guidance.

Risk assessment – pre-eclampsia

This statement has been removed. For more details see update information in NICE's quality standard on antenatal care.

Risk assessment – venous thromboembolism

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women at risk of venous thromboembolism at the booking appointment are referred to an obstetrician for further management.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women have their risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) assessed and recorded at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women at risk of VTE at the booking appointment are referred to an obstetrician for further management.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women accessing antenatal care who have their risk of VTE assessed and recorded at the booking appointment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have their risk of VTE assessed and recorded at the booking appointment.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women accessing antenatal care.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women at risk of VTE at the booking appointment who are referred to an obstetrician for further management.
Numerator – the number in the denominator referred to an obstetrician for further management.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women at risk of VTE at the booking appointment.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Incidence of VTE in pregnant women.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to refer pregnant women at risk of VTE at the booking appointment to an obstetrician for further management.
Healthcare professionals refer pregnant women at risk of VTE at the booking appointment to an obstetrician for further management.
Commissioners ensure they commission services which refer pregnant women at risk of VTE at the booking appointment to an obstetrician for further management.
Pregnant women who at the time of their booking appointment have a high or moderate chance of developing VTE (a blood clot) are referred to an obstetrician for support.

Source guidance

Antenatal care. NICE guideline NG201 (2021), recommendations 1.2.18 and 1.2.20

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

At risk of VTE
High risk of VTE is defined as any previous VTE except a single event related to major surgery.
Intermediate risk of VTE is defined as any of the following:
  • hospital admission
  • single previous VTE related to major surgery
  • high-risk thrombophilia and no VTE
  • medical comorbidities, for example, cancer, heart failure, active lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, or inflammatory polyarthropathy, nephrotic syndrome, type 1 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy, sickle cell disease, current intravenous drug use
  • any surgical procedure, for example, appendicectomy
  • ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (first trimester only).
Or 4 or more risk factors from the following list (or 3 risk factors from 28 weeks):
  • obesity (BMI above 30 kg/m2)
  • age above 35 years
  • parity 3 or more
  • smoking
  • gross varicose veins
  • current pre-eclampsia
  • immobility, for example, paraplegia, pelvic girdle pain with reduced mobility
  • family history of unprovoked or oestrogen-provoked VTE in first-degree relative
  • low-risk thrombophilia
  • multiple pregnancy
  • in vitro fertilisation or assisted reproductive technology
  • transient risk factors: dehydration/hyperemesis, current systemic infection, long-distance travel.

Risk assessment – high risk of venous thromboembolism

This statement has been merged with statement 8. For more details see update information in NICE's quality standard on antenatal care.

Screening – national fetal anomaly screening programmes

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women are offered fetal anomaly screening in accordance with current UK National Screening Committee programmes.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
Evidence of local NHS-commissioned services to ensure that all pregnant women are offered fetal anomaly screening in accordance with current UK National Screening Committee programmes.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women booking before 21 weeks who are offered the NHS fetal anomaly screening programme at the booking appointment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are offered the NHS fetal anomaly screening programme.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women accessing antenatal care before 21 weeks.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women booking before 14 weeks 2 days that agreed to fetal anomaly screening who are offered an ultrasound scan to screen for Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and Patau’s syndrome to take place between 11 weeks 2 days and 14 weeks 1 day.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are offered an ultrasound screening for Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and Patau’s syndrome to take place between 11 weeks 2 days and 14 weeks 1 day.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women booking before 14 weeks 2 days that agreed to fetal anomaly screening for Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and Patau’s syndrome.
Data source: Public Health England’s NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme publishes data on first trimester combined screening for Down’s syndrome (T21), Edwards’ syndrome (T18) and Patau’s syndrome (T13).
c) Proportion of pregnant women booking before 21 weeks that agreed to fetal anomaly screening who are offered ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies to take place between 18 weeks 0 days and 20 weeks 6 days.
Numerator – the number in the denominator offered ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies to take place between 18 weeks 0 days and 20 weeks 6 days.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women booking before 21 weeks that agreed to fetal anomaly screening.
Data source: Public Health England’s NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme publishes data on fetal anomaly ultrasound screening.
Outcome
a) Pregnant women feel they have made an informed decision about whether to undergo fetal anomaly screening.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, local survey.
b) Screening uptake rates.
Data source: Public Health England’s NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme includes data on screening uptake rates.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to offer fetal anomaly screening to pregnant women in accordance with current UK National Screening Committee programmes.
Healthcare professionals offer fetal anomaly screening to pregnant women in accordance with current UK National Screening Committee programmes.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that offer fetal anomaly screening to pregnant women as part of NHS care, in accordance with current UK National Screening Committee programmes.
Pregnant women who access antenatal care before 14 weeks 2 days are offered ultrasound screening for Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and Patau’s syndrome.
Pregnant women who access antenatal care before 21 weeks are offered an ultrasound scan to screen for various conditions in their unborn baby.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Fetal anomaly screening in accordance with current UK National Screening Committee programmes
The UK National Screening Committee recommends all eligible pregnant women in England are offered fetal anomaly screening. The NHS fetal anomaly screening programme has responsibility for implementing this policy.
The combined test uses maternal age, gestational age calculated from the crown-rump length measurement, nuchal translucency measurement, and two biochemical markers of pregnancy – associated plasma protein A and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone. The optimal time to perform the combined test is between 11 weeks 2 days and 14 weeks 1 day but a maternal blood specimen may be taken from 10 weeks onwards.
For women presenting too late for first trimester testing, the quadruple test (maternal age and four biochemical markers) window runs from 14 weeks 2 days to 20 weeks 0 days.
The fetal anomaly ultrasound scan should be offered to take place between 18 weeks 0 days and 20 weeks 6 days.

Equality and diversity considerations

The offer and implications of screening should be understood by all women to enable them to make informed decisions. This will necessitate provision of information in an accessible format (particularly for women with physical, sensory or learning disabilities and women who do not speak or read English).

Fetal wellbeing – external cephalic version

This quality statement is taken from the antenatal care quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for antenatal care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth are offered external cephalic version.

Quality measures

The following measures can be used to assess the quality of care or service provision specified in the statement. They are examples of how the statement can be measured, and can be adapted and used flexibly.
Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women with a suspected breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) are referred for confirmatory ultrasound assessment.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that pregnant women with a confirmed uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth are offered external cephalic version.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of pregnant women with a suspected breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who are referred for confirmatory ultrasound assessment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator referred for confirmatory ultrasound assessment.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with a suspected breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins).
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of pregnant women with a confirmed uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth who are offered external cephalic version.
Numerator – the number in the denominator offered external cephalic version.
Denominator – the number of pregnant women with a confirmed uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
a) External cephalic version rates.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Mode of delivery including:
  • rates of vaginal birth, emergency and elective caesarean section after successful external cephalic version
  • rates of vaginal birth, emergency and elective caesarean section after unsuccessful external cephalic version
  • rates of vaginal birth and emergency caesarean section after diagnosis of breech presentation in labour.
Data source: The NHS Digital Maternity Services Data Set collects data on delivery method.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers ensure that systems are in place to offer pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth external cephalic version.
Healthcare professionals offer pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth external cephalic version.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that offer pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton breech presentation at 36 weeks or later (until labour begins) who prefer cephalic vaginal birth external cephalic version.
Pregnant women with a single baby in the breech position (bottom first with knees either flexed or extended) but with no other problems at 36 weeks or later in their pregnancy who prefer a vaginal birth are offered external cephalic version (a procedure to move the baby round to the head-down position), which includes first having an ultrasound scan to confirm the baby’s position.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Pregnant women who prefer cephalic vaginal birth
For women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy with breech presentation confirmed after 36 weeks plus 0 days discuss the different options available and their benefits, risks and implications, including:
  • external cephalic version (to turn the baby from bottom to head down)
  • breech vaginal birth
  • elective caesarean birth.
[NICE’s guideline on antenatal care, recommendation 1.2.38]

Equality and diversity considerations

There may be some women whose breech presentation is not identified and who are not offered an external cephalic version.

Fetal wellbeing – membrane sweeping for prolonged pregnancy

Effective interventions library

Effective interventions library

Successful effective interventions library details

Implementation

Information for the public

NICE has written information for the public on each of the following topics.

Pathway information

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Supporting information

Timetable of antenatal appointments

Appointment
Care for women with diabetes during pregnancy
Booking appointment (joint diabetes and antenatal care) – ideally by 10 weeks
Discuss how diabetes will affect the pregnancy, birth and early parenting (such as breastfeeding and initial care of the baby).
If the woman has not had preconception care:
  • give information, education and advice
  • take a clinical history to establish the extent of diabetes related complications (including neuropathy and vascular disease), and review medicines for diabetes and its complications.
If the woman has had preconception care, continue to provide information, education and advice on achieving optimal blood glucose control (including dietary advice).
Offer retinal assessment for women with pre-existing diabetes unless the woman has been assessed in the last 3 months.
Offer a renal assessment for women with pre-existing diabetes, if they have not had 1 in the last 3 months.
Arrange contact with the joint diabetes and antenatal clinic every 1 to 2 weeks throughout pregnancy for all women with diabetes.
Measure HbA1c levels for women with pre-existing diabetes to determine the level of risk for the pregnancy.
Offer self-monitoring of blood glucose or a 75-g 2-hour 'OGTT' as soon as possible for women with previous gestational diabetes who book in the first trimester.
Confirm the viability of the pregnancy and gestational age at 7 to 9 weeks.
16 weeks
Offer retinal assessment at 16 to 20 weeks to women with pre-existing diabetes who had diabetic retinopathy at their first antenatal clinic visit.
Offer self-monitoring of blood glucose or a 75-g 2-hour OGTT as soon as possible for women with previous gestational diabetes who book in the second trimester.
20 weeks
Offer an ultrasound scan to detect fetal structural abnormalities, including examination of the fetal heart (4 chambers, outflow tracts and 3 vessels).
28 weeks
Offer ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth and amniotic fluid volume.
Offer retinal assessment to all women with pre-existing diabetes.
Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes as a result of routine antenatal testing at 24 to 28 weeks enter the care pathway.
32 weeks
Offer ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth and amniotic fluid volume.
Offer nulliparous women all routine investigations normally scheduled for 31 weeks in routine antenatal care.
34 weeks
No differences in care for women with diabetes.
36 weeks
Offer ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth and amniotic fluid volume.
Provide information and advice about:
  • timing, mode and management of birth
  • analgesia and anaesthesia
  • changes to blood glucose-lowering therapy during and after birth
  • care of the baby after birth
  • starting to breastfeed and the effect of breastfeeding on blood glucose control
  • contraception and follow-up.
37 weeks to 38 weeks plus 6 days
Offer induction of labour or (if indicated) caesarean section to women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Await spontaneous labour for other women.
38 weeks
Offer tests of fetal wellbeing.
39 weeks
Offer tests of fetal wellbeing.
Advise women with uncomplicated gestational diabetes to give birth no later than 40 weeks plus 6 days.

Glossary

body mass index
continuous glucose monitoring
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (also known as insulin pump therapy)
(repeated and unpredicted hypoglycaemia, requiring third party assistance, that results in continuing anxiety about recurrence and is associated with significant adverse effect on quality of life)
estimated glomerular filtration rate
(HbA1c values are reported in mmol/mol, using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) standardised HbA1c test; the equivalent values in %, using the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)-aligned HbA1c test, are reported in parentheses)
(care for patients who need detailed observation or intervention, including support for a single failing organ system, postoperative care, and patients 'stepping down' from higher levels of care)
oral glucose tolerance test

Paths in this pathway

Pathway created: May 2011 Last updated: August 2021

© NICE 2021. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights.

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