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Psychosis and schizophrenia

About

What is covered

This interactive flowchart covers the recognition and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people under 18 years, and the care and management of adults with psychosis and schizophrenia (with onset before the age of 60 years). It includes care provided by primary, community, secondary, tertiary and other health and social care professionals, including professionals in CAMHS and early intervention in psychosis services. The term 'psychosis' refers to the group of psychotic disorders that includes schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder and delusional disorder.

Updates

Updates to this interactive flowchart

10 May 2018 Promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups (NICE quality standard 167) added.
24 May 2016 Recommendations in choosing antipsychotic medication amended in line with the update of NICE guideline CG155 on psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management.
14 October 2015 Bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE quality standard 102) added.
11 February 2015 Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE quality standard 80) added.
18 March 2014 The recommendation on help to stop smoking in care across all phases was corrected. This was to make it clear that it is the hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke that cause interactions with other drugs, rather than nicotine.

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Short Text

Everything NICE has said on recognising and managing psychosis and schizophrenia in children, young people and adults in an interactive flowchart

What is covered

This interactive flowchart covers the recognition and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people under 18 years, and the care and management of adults with psychosis and schizophrenia (with onset before the age of 60 years). It includes care provided by primary, community, secondary, tertiary and other health and social care professionals, including professionals in CAMHS and early intervention in psychosis services. The term 'psychosis' refers to the group of psychotic disorders that includes schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder and delusional disorder.

Updates

Updates to this interactive flowchart

10 May 2018 Promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups (NICE quality standard 167) added.
24 May 2016 Recommendations in choosing antipsychotic medication amended in line with the update of NICE guideline CG155 on psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management.
14 October 2015 Bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE quality standard 102) added.
11 February 2015 Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE quality standard 80) added.
18 March 2014 The recommendation on help to stop smoking in care across all phases was corrected. This was to make it clear that it is the hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke that cause interactions with other drugs, rather than nicotine.

Sources

NICE guidance and other sources used to create this interactive flowchart.
Structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis (2008) NICE technology appraisal guidance 136
Guidance on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (2003 updated 2009) NICE technology appraisal guidance 59
Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (2015) NICE quality standard 80
Schizophrenia: lurasidone (2014) NICE evidence summary ESNM48
Schizophrenia: omega-3 fatty acid medicines (2013) NICE evidence summary ESUOM19

Quality standards

Promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups

These quality statements are taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people

These quality statements are taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statements

Designing health and wellbeing programmes

This quality statement is taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups have their views represented in setting priorities and designing local health and wellbeing programmes.

Rationale

Health and wellbeing programmes can support positive behaviour changes and contribute to promoting health and preventing premature mortality. People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups may not engage with services or may have a poor experience of those programmes and associated services if they are not culturally sensitive and appropriate. Involving people, community organisations and faith leaders who can represent the views of local minority ethnic groups helps to ensure that the services reflect the needs and preferences of the local population.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of work carried out to gather intelligence about the ethnic diversity of the local population.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, intelligence gathered for the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment.
b) Evidence of work carried out to gain understanding of the needs of black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups living in the local area.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, intelligence gathered for the joint strategic needs assessment.
c) Evidence of actions taken to gather views of local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups on priorities for and design of health and wellbeing programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from programme planning, records from meetings (agendas or minutes) and focus groups.
d) Evidence of how intelligence on ethnic diversity, the needs and views of the local population is used to inform commissioning.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, information included in local health equality assessments.
Process
a) Proportion of local health and wellbeing programmes that gathered views of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups when setting priorities and designing the programmes.
Numerator – the number in the denominator that gathered views of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups when setting priorities and designing the programmes.
Denominator – the number of health and wellbeing programmes commissioned locally.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, service annual report.
b) Proportion of people representing the views of black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups involved in setting priorities and designing local health and wellbeing programmes who felt that their views were valued.
Numerator – the number in the denominator that felt their views were valued.
Denominator – the number of people representing the views of black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups involved in setting priorities and designing local health and wellbeing programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, surveys carried out with people representing ethnic groups.
Outcome
a) Uptake of local health and wellbeing services among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, service workflow.
b) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to local health and wellbeing services who feel that the services meet their needs.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, service user survey.
c) Prevalence of obesity among local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: NHS Digital’s Health Survey for England and National Child Measurement Programme, and local data collection, for example, GP practice data.
d) Physical activity levels among local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: Active Lives, Sport England and local data collection, for example, review of service user records held by the provider.
e) Prevalence of tobacco use among local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: Office for National Statistics’ Annual Population Survey and local data collection, for example, stop smoking service data.
f) Mental wellbeing among local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: Local health data collection, for example mental health and wellbeing joint strategic needs assessment profile.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (primary care services, community care services and services in the wider public, community and voluntary sectors) ensure that the services they provide recognise the beliefs, expectations and values of local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups. They continually review the services to ensure that they are culturally appropriate, accessible and tailored to the diverse needs of the local population.
Health, public health and social care practitioners recognise the beliefs, expectations and values of local people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups that they support. They ensure that the services they provide are culturally appropriate and accessible. This may mean working in partnership with existing local community groups or faith leaders who can support delivering some of the programmes in non-traditional community-based settings.
Commissioners (Public Health England, NHS England, local authorities, clinical commissioning groups) gather intelligence and gain understanding of the diversity of the local population and its needs. They ensure that the views of people from minority ethnic groups are represented when priorities are set and local health and wellbeing programmes are designed. This may be through engaging local communities using public consultation or community workshops that discuss future services. These can ensure that the local population is represented by individuals as well as established community groups and educational or religious leaders. The commissioners also ensure that local services have the skills mix and capacity to provide support that is culturally appropriate and tailored to the needs of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups to make positive behaviour changes.
People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups advise on what local health and wellbeing programmes should focus on and what culturally sensitive and acceptable services should look like. They share their views during workshops or consultations organised by the commissioners, or through other people who they trust, such as community leaders or faith leaders.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Health and wellbeing programmes
Health and wellbeing programmes cover all strategies, initiatives, services, activities, projects or research that aim to improve health (physical and mental) and wellbeing and reduce health inequalities.
[Adapted from NICE's guideline on community engagement]

Equality and diversity considerations

Due to language and communication difficulties or past experiences of racism and prejudice, some people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups may not have had a positive experience of accessing services. This may prevent them from engaging with services and increase their risk of poor health outcomes. Commissioners and providers seeking to obtain the views and understand the needs of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups should work closely with existing community groups, faith leaders and educators who may already have links to groups and individuals with poor access to services.

Peer and lay roles

This quality statement is taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are represented in peer and lay roles within local health and wellbeing programmes.

Rationale

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are underrepresented in health and wellbeing programmes. To ensure that the programmes are accessed and used by minority ethnic groups, commissioners and providers need to recognise the knowledge, skills and expertise of local communities. People known to and trusted by communities can take on peer and lay roles and encourage uptake of services among groups that may otherwise be reluctant to get involved. They can raise awareness, deliver information and advice in a culturally appropriate manner, and help with designing and providing interventions and services that are relevant, acceptable and tailored to the local population.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are represented in peer and lay roles for local health and wellbeing programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from service planning and service design records, and recruitment records.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to support people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups taking on peer and lay roles in local health and wellbeing programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, records of meetings, mentoring sessions, existing support networks or workshops with people taking on peer and lay roles.
Process
Proportion of local health and wellbeing programmes with people working in peer and lay roles who are representative of the local community.
Numerator – the number in the denominator with people working in peer and lay roles who are representative of the local community.
Denominator – the number of local health and wellbeing programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from service annual reports.
Outcome
a) The number of people from black, Asian and other minority groups who access local health and wellbeing programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, review of service records.
b) The number of people in peer and lay roles supporting black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups to improve their health and wellbeing.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, review of service records.
c) Experience of engaging with local health and wellbeing programmes among people from black, Asian and other minority groups.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, service user survey.
d) Long-term retention of people in peer and lay roles.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, service annual report.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (primary care services, community care services and services in the wider public, community and voluntary sectors) ensure that they work with established community groups and educational or religious leaders to identify and recruit members of the local community who can support people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and represent the diverse needs of the local population. They ensure that people in lay roles are supported with resources, information and mechanisms to proactively engage members of the community who may be excluded or disengaged. Service providers also support people in peer and lay roles with feedback, support networks, training and mentoring to allow them to fulfil their responsibilities, reach their full potential and continue with the role.
Commissioners (community and voluntary sector organisations and statutory services) understand the diversity of their local community and make a long-term commitment to funding and supporting effective community engagement approaches, such as peer and lay roles. They secure resources to recruit people to peer and lay roles and provide them with ongoing training and support.
People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are given support and information by other members of their own community who are working closely with organisations that provide local health and wellbeing services. These people represent the interests and concerns of the community and ensure that local health and wellbeing programmes and services recognise the beliefs, expectations and values of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Health and wellbeing programmes
Health and wellbeing programmes cover all strategies, initiatives, services, activities, projects or research that aim to improve health (physical and mental) and wellbeing and reduce health inequalities.
[Adapted from NICE's guideline on community engagement]
Peer and lay roles
Community members working in a non-professional capacity to support health and wellbeing initiatives. 'Lay' is the general term for a community member. 'Peer' describes a community member who shares similar life experiences to the community they are working with. Peer and lay roles may be paid or unpaid (that is, voluntary). Effective peer and lay approaches are:
  • Bridging roles to establish effective links between statutory, community and voluntary organisations and the local community and to determine which types of communication would most effectively help get people involved.
  • Carrying out 'peer interventions'. That is, training and supporting people to offer information and support to others, either from the same community or from similar backgrounds.
  • Community health champions who aim to reach marginalised or vulnerable groups and help them get involved.
  • Volunteer health roles whereby community members get involved in organising and delivering activities.
[NICE's guideline on community engagement]

Equality and diversity considerations

Due to language and communication difficulties or past experiences of racism and prejudice, some people from the black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups may not have had a positive experience of accessing services. This may prevent them from engaging with services and increase their risk of poor health outcomes. People in peer and lay roles may be more successful at engaging with and supporting people from similar backgrounds than traditional health and wellbeing services.

Referring people at high risk of type 2 diabetes

This quality statement is taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups at high risk of type 2 diabetes are referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme.

Rationale

People from certain ethnic communities have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those in the white European population. This includes people of South Asian, Chinese, black African and African-Caribbean family origin. In these populations, the risk of type 2 diabetes increases at an earlier age and at a lower BMI level. Many cases of type 2 diabetes are preventable through changes to a person's diet and physical activity levels. Evidence-based intensive lifestyle change programmes can significantly reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for those at high risk.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements for identifying and referring people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups at high risk of type 2 diabetes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, GP contracts.
Process
a) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups identified as being at high risk of type 2 diabetes who are referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who are referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who are identified as being at high risk of type 2 diabetes.
Data source: The Diabetes UK and NHS Digital National Diabetes Audit and local data collection, for example, GP patient records or data providers such as Commissioning Support Units (CSUs).
b) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme who attended the programme.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who attended an intensive lifestyle change programme.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who are at high risk of type 2 diabetes referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme.
Data source: The Diabetes UK and NHS Digital National Diabetes Audit and local data collection, for example, GP patient records or data providers such as CSUs.
c) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme who completed the programme.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who completed an intensive lifestyle change programme.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who are at high risk of type 2 diabetes referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme.
Data source: The Diabetes UK and NHS Digital National Diabetes Audit and local data collection, for example, GP patient records or data providers such as CSUs.
Outcome
a) Change in BMI among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups completing intensive lifestyle change programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, GP patient records.
b) Change in blood pressure among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups completing intensive lifestyle change programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, GP patient records.
c) Change in HbA1c among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups completing intensive lifestyle change programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, GP patient records.
d) Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among people from black, Asian and other minority groups.
Data source: The Diabetes UK and NHS Digital National Diabetes Audit and Public Health England’s Diabetes prevalence estimates for local populations.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (such as GPs and community healthcare providers) ensure that people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who are identified as being at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes are referred to an intensive lifestyle change programme. They also ensure that systems are in place to start diabetes prevention interventions at a lower BMI threshold in people from minority ethnic groups at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This may involve people in peer and lay roles raising awareness, assessing risks and providing advice on diabetes prevention among those ethnic minorities.
Health and public health practitioners (such as GPs, practice nurses and community healthcare providers) are aware that some black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. They refer people who are at high risk to an intensive lifestyle change programme and provide advice to those with a lower level of risk.
Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups, NHS England and local authorities in sustainability and transformation partnership areas) ensure that intensive lifestyle change programmes are available for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups at high risk of type 2 diabetes. They work with ethnic minorities to ensure that programmes include a range of culturally sensitive and appropriate behaviour change interventions.
People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic group at high risk of type 2 diabetes are referred to culturally sensitive and appropriate services that can help them achieve healthy weight and be more active. Those who are not currently at high risk of type 2 diabetes are given information and further support relevant to their needs.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Intensive lifestyle change programme
A structured and coordinated range of interventions provided in different venues for people identified as being at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It should be local, evidence-based and quality-assured. The aim is to help people to become more physically active and improve their diet. If the person is overweight or obese, the programme should result in weight loss. Programmes may be delivered to individuals or groups (or involve a mix of both) depending on the resources available. They can be provided by primary care teams and public, private or community organisations with expertise in dietary advice, weight management and physical activity.
[NICE’s guideline on preventing type 2 diabetes in people at high risk, glossary]
High risk of type 2 diabetes
High risk is defined as a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.5–6.9 mmol/litre or an HbA1c level of 42–47 mmol/mol (6.0–6.4%). These terms are used instead of specific numerical scores because risk assessment tools have different scoring systems. Examples of risk assessment tools include: Diabetes risk score assessment tool, QDiabetes risk calculator and Leicester practice risk score. Risk can also be assessed using the NHS Health Check.
[NICE’s guideline on preventing type 2 diabetes in people at high risk, glossary]
Lower thresholds (23 kg/m2 to indicate increased risk and 27.5 kg/m2 to indicate high risk) should be used for BMI to trigger action to prevent type 2 diabetes among Asian (South Asian and Chinese) populations compared to those used for the general population.

Equality and diversity considerations

Due to language and communication difficulties, or past experiences of racism and prejudice, some people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups may find it difficult to engage with services. Intensive lifestyle change programmes need to be culturally appropriate, accessible and tailored to the diverse needs of the local population.

Cardiac rehabilitation

This quality statement is taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to a cardiac rehabilitation programme are given a choice of times and settings for the sessions and are followed up if they do not attend.

Rationale

Cardiac rehabilitation programmes improve clinical outcomes for people who have had a cardiac event. However, uptake among people from black, Asian and other ethnic minority groups is lower than in the general population. Providing programmes that are culturally appropriate and sensitive, at settings and times that are convenient can increase uptake. Following up people who do not attend allows for a discussion about potential barriers to attendance and how to overcome them. It also gives the opportunity to motivate people to start or to continue with the programme.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to discuss any factors that might stop people from black, Asian or other minority ethnic groups from attending a cardiac rehabilitation programme, before they receive a referral.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from service level agreements.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to provide cardiac rehabilitation sessions for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups in a variety of settings including at home, in the community or in a hospital.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from service level agreements.
c) Evidence of local arrangements to provide cardiac rehabilitation sessions for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups at a choice of times, for example, sessions outside working hours.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from service level agreements.
Process
a) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to a cardiac rehabilitation programme who are offered sessions in a variety of settings including home, the community or a hospital.
Numerator – the number in the denominator offered sessions in a variety of settings including home, the community or a hospital.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to a cardiac rehabilitation programme.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from patient records.
b) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to a cardiac rehabilitation programme who did not start the programme who were contacted with a reminder.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who were contacted with a reminder.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to a cardiac rehabilitation programme who did not start the programme.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from patient records.
c) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who missed their cardiac rehabilitation appointment who were contacted with a reminder.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who were contacted with a reminder.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups participating in a cardiac rehabilitation programme who missed their appointment.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from patient records.
Outcome
a) Rate of uptake of cardiac rehabilitation programmes among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: National data on the uptake of cardiac rehabilitation are available from the British Heart Foundation’s National audit of cardiac rehabilitation. Local data collection, for example, from cardiac rehabilitation programme data collection system.
b) Rates of adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: National data on the uptake of cardiac rehabilitation are available from the British Heart Foundation’s National audit of cardiac rehabilitation. Local data collection, for example, from cardiac rehabilitation programme data collection system.
c) Service user experience among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who accessed cardiac rehabilitation programmes.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, surveys carried out with people referred to cardiac rehabilitation.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (secondary and tertiary care services) ensure they provide individualised support for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups to attend and continue with cardiac rehabilitation programmes. This may include working on overcoming barriers with people who are not willing to engage with services due to poor past experiences or ensuring that the programmes are run on different days, at different times and at venues that are culturally appropriate and convenient. Providers also ensure that a varied range of acceptable and culturally sensitive exercise is available, and people are followed up to continue with the programme.
Healthcare professionals (such as cardiologists and cardiac nurses) identify barriers to attending a cardiac rehabilitation programme and offer individualised support to people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups. They offer cardiac rehabilitation programmes on different days, at different times and venues (such as community centres or places of worship) and ensure that they are culturally appropriate and suitable. Healthcare professionals also follow-up people to motivate them to continue with the programme or understand the obstacles that may prevent people from using the service.
Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups) commission cardiac rehabilitation services that have the capacity and expertise to provide people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with programmes that are suitable, acceptable and culturally appropriate. They also ensure that the services support people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups to attend and adhere to the programme by addressing the barriers to participation.
People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups referred to a cardiac rehabilitation programme are supported to attend and keep going to the sessions. This might mean that sessions are available at venues and times convenient to the person or that the sessions are acceptable to them culturally, for example, single sex or with bilingual staff.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Cardiac rehabilitation
A coordinated and structured programme designed to remove or reduce the underlying causes of cardiovascular disease, as well as to provide the best possible physical, mental and social conditions, so that people can, by their own efforts, continue to play a full part in their community and through improved health behaviour, slow or reverse progression of the disease. Cardiac rehabilitation should consist of a multidisciplinary, integrated approach delivering care in lifestyle risk factor management, psychosocial health, medical risk factor management and the optimal use of cardioprotective therapies, underpinned by psychologically informed methods of health behaviour change and education.
Cardiac rehabilitation programmes should include a range of interventions with health education, lifestyle advice, stress management and physical exercise components.
[NICE’s guideline on myocardial infarction, full guideline and recommendations 1.1.1 and 1.1.19]

Equality and diversity considerations

Due to language and communication difficulties, or past experiences of racism and prejudice, some people from the black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups may find it difficult to engage with services. Also, some traditions and religious practices may stop people from accessing services on certain days or certain times of the day. Behaviour change programmes need to acknowledge those differences, be culturally appropriate, accessible and tailored to the diverse needs of the local population.

Support for people with mental health problems

This quality statement is taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups can access mental health services in a variety of community-based settings.

Rationale

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are less likely to access mental health treatment than the general population. Mental health illness can be associated with a considerable stigma among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups. Some people may find community-based services, such as a person’s home or other residential settings, community centres and social centres, more appealing, accessible and culturally appropriate than traditional healthcare services. To help combat the stigma and encourage people with mental health problems to access support early, the services need to be visible, accessible and responsive to the needs of the local population.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to improve access to mental health services for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from local commissioning plans.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that mental health services are provided in a variety of settings that people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups can choose from.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from service level agreements.
Process
Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups accessing mental health services who are offered support in community-based settings.
Numerator – the number in the denominator offered support in community-based settings.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups accessing mental health services.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from patient records.
Outcome
a) Rates of uptake of mental health services among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
Data source: Local data collection for example, from GP records.
b) Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who complete treatment from mental health services.
Data source: Local data collection for example, from GP records.
c) Service user experience among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups who accessed mental health services.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, surveys carried out with people referred to mental health services.

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (such as GP practices, community health services, mental health services and independent providers) collaborate with local communities and people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups, healthcare professionals and commissioners to develop local care pathways that promote mental health services tailored to the needs of the local population. They ensure that services are provided in settings accessible and acceptable to people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with mental health problems.
Healthcare professionals (such as GPs, psychiatrists, mental health nurses) offer people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups different options for where they can access mental health support to ensure they can choose acceptable and culturally appropriate services. They also collaborate with service providers, commissioners, communities and people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups to develop local care pathways that promote mental health services tailored to the needs of the local population.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and local authorities) collaborate with local communities, people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups, healthcare professionals and service providers to develop local care pathways tailored to the needs of the local population. They ensure that mental health services are provided in a variety of settings and a range of support is available to facilitate access and uptake of services among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups.
People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are given a choice of places to access mental health support. Locations may include their own home, a community or social centre, a GP practice or other local health clinic.

Source guidance

Common mental health problems: identification and pathways to care (2011) NICE guideline CG123, recommendation 1.1.1.7

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Community-based settings
Community-based settings include the person's home or other residential settings, community centres and social centres.
[NICE’s guideline on common mental health problems, recommendation 1.1.1.7]

Equality and diversity considerations

Stigma attached to mental health problems among people from the black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and fear of being sectioned or having children taken away by social services may stop people from accessing mental health support early. To ensure they are culturally appropriate and tailored to the diverse needs of the local population, members of the community should be involved in designing and reviewing the services as well as represented in peer and lay roles to ensure good links into the community.

Physical health checks for people with serious mental illness

This quality statement is taken from the promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice for promoting health and preventing premature mortality in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness have a physical health assessment at least annually.

Rationale

Life expectancy for adults with a serious mental illness is significantly lower than for people in the general population. People from some black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and these conditions can be exacerbated by the use of antipsychotics. An annual health check helps to pick up on early signs of physical health conditions and enables action to be taken to prevent worsening health.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness have a physical health assessment at least annually.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, using NHS England’s practical toolkit for mental health trusts and commissioners.
b) Evidence of local primary and secondary care services working together to monitor and address the physical health needs of people affected by serious mental illness as part of the Rethink Mental Health Integrated Physical Health Pathway.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, using NHS England’s practical toolkit for mental health trusts and commissioners.
Process
Proportion of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness who have had a physical health assessment within the past 12 months.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have had a physical health assessment within the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from practice risk registers.
Outcome
a) Premature mortality rates among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, from practice risk registers.
b) Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness.
Data source: Local data collection, for example, GP patient records or data providers such as Commissioning Support Units (CSUs).

What the quality statement means for different audiences

Service providers (such as GPs or mental health services) have systems in place to ensure that physical health assessments are carried out at least annually for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness. The results are shared (under shared care arrangements) when the service user is in the care of both primary and secondary services. Service providers may involve people in peer and lay roles to support raising awareness of the increased risks and importance of physical health checks among people from black, Asian and other ethnic minority groups with a serious mental illness.
Healthcare professionals (such as GPs or nurses) carry out physical health assessments at least annually for people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness. They share the results (under shared care arrangements) when the service user is in the care of both primary and secondary services. They also highlight the increased risks and importance of physical health checks to people from black, Asian and other ethnic minority groups with a serious mental illness.
Commissioners (such as NHS England local area teams) ensure that they commission services that can demonstrate they are carrying out physical health assessments at least annually in people from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with a serious mental illness, and include this requirement in continuous training programmes. They also ensure that shared care arrangements are in place when the service user is in the care of both primary and secondary services, to ensure that the results of assessments are shared.
People from black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups with serious mental health problems have regular health checks (at least once a year). This is to check for problems that are common in people being treated for a serious mental illness, such as weight gain, diabetes, and heart, lung and breathing problems. The results are shared between their GP surgery and mental health team.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Serious mental illness
Schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and other psychoses.
Physical health assessment
A comprehensive health check focused on physical health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and respiratory disease. The annual check should include:
  • weight or BMI, diet, nutritional status and level of physical activity
  • cardiovascular status, including pulse and blood pressure
  • metabolic status, including fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood lipid profile
  • liver function
  • renal and thyroid function, and calcium levels, for people taking long-term lithium.
[Adapted from NICE’s guideline on bipolar disorder, recommendations 1.2.11 and 1.2.12]

Assessment for a first episode of psychosis

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Children and young people who are referred to a specialist mental health service with a first episode of psychosis start assessment within 2 weeks.

Rationale

Starting assessment for a first episode of psychosis within 2 weeks can improve outcomes by reducing the duration of untreated psychosis, as longer periods of untreated psychosis are linked to worse outcomes. Specialist mental health services can improve symptoms and clinical outcomes such as admission and relapse rates.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that systems are in place for children and young people who are referred to a specialist mental health service with a first episode of psychosis to start assessment within 2 weeks.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of children and young people who are referred to a specialist mental health service with a first episode of psychosis who start assessment within 2 weeks.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who start assessment within 2 weeks of referral.
Denominator – the number of children and young people who are referred to a specialist mental health service with a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection. National data are collected in the Health and Social Care Information Centre Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Data Set.
Outcome
a) Mental health admission rates for children and young people.
Data source: Local data collection. National data are collected in the Health and Social Care Information Centre Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Data Set.
b) Duration of untreated psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, healthcare professionals, and commissioners

Service providers (such as child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that systems and protocols are in place for children and young people who are referred to a specialist mental health service with a first episode of psychosis to start assessment within 2 weeks.
Healthcare professionals (such as psychologists and psychiatrists) start assessment of children and young people who are referred with a first episode of psychosis within 2 weeks of referral.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) commission specialist mental health services that start assessment within 2 weeks for children and young people who are referred with a first episode of psychosis.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Children and young people who have been having hallucinations or delusions (believing things that aren’t true) for 4 weeks or more for the first time start an assessment within 2 weeks of being referred to a specialist mental health service (such as a child and adolescent mental health service or an early intervention in psychosis service). These services find out why the child or young person is having hallucinations or delusions, and will provide support and treatment to prevent them from coming back. This will reduce the chance that the child or young person needs to be admitted to hospital.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

A first episode of psychosis
A first presentation of sustained psychotic symptoms (lasting 4 weeks or more). Symptoms may include ‘positive symptoms’ such as hallucinations (perception in the absence of any stimulus) and ‘negative symptoms’ such as emotional apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self-neglect.
[Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.3.1 (key priority for implementation) and Introduction]
Specialist mental health service
An age-appropriate multidisciplinary service such as a child and adolescent mental health service or an early intervention in psychosis service.

Equality and diversity considerations

Assessments should be adjusted if necessary to take account of any learning disabilities, autism or cognitive impairment, and healthcare professionals should consider consulting a relevant specialist.

Family intervention

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Children and young people with a first episode of psychosis and their family members are offered family intervention.

Rationale

Families play an important part in providing care and support to children and young people with a first episode of psychosis. When family intervention forms part of a broad-based approach that combines different treatment options tailored to the needs of the individual and their family, it can improve coping skills and relapse rates for children and young people with a first episode of psychosis.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that family intervention is an available treatment option for children and young people with a first episode of psychosis and their family members.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of children and young people with a first episode of psychosis whose family members receive family intervention.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose family members receive family intervention.
Denominator – the number of children and young people with a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of children and young people with a first episode of psychosis who receive family intervention.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive family intervention.
Denominator – the number of children and young people with a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Relapse rates for children and young people with psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, healthcare professionals and commissioners

Service providers (such as child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that family intervention is an available treatment option for children and young people with a first episode of psychosis and their family members. They should ensure that practitioners are trained and have the appropriate competencies to deliver it.
Healthcare professionals (such as psychologists and psychiatrists) offer family intervention to children and young people with a first episode of psychosis and their family members.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) commission family intervention services and ensure that referral pathways are in place for children and young people with a first episode of psychosis and their family members to be referred for family intervention.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Children and young people with a first episode of psychosis and their family members are offered a psychological therapy called family intervention. This helps support families or carers to work together to help children and young people with psychosis cope and to reduce stress.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Family members
Family members include parents and carers, siblings and other family members who the child or young person with a first episode of psychosis lives with or is in close contact with.
A first episode of psychosis
A first presentation of sustained psychotic symptoms (lasting 4 weeks or more). Symptoms may include ‘positive symptoms’ such as hallucinations (perception in the absence of any stimulus) and ‘negative symptoms’ such as emotional apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self-neglect.
[Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.3.1 (key priority for implementation) and Introduction]
Family intervention
Family intervention is a psychological therapy that should:
  • include the child or young person with psychosis, if practical
  • be carried out for between 3 months and 1 year
  • include at least 10 planned sessions
  • take account of the whole family’s preference for either single-family intervention or multi-family group intervention
  • take account of the relationship between the parents or carers and the child or young person with psychosis
  • have a specific supportive, educational or treatment function and include negotiated problem solving or crisis management work.
[Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.3.27]

Equality and diversity considerations

The delivery and duration of family intervention should be adjusted if necessary to take account of any learning disabilities, autism or cognitive impairment in the child or young person with psychosis or their family members, and healthcare professionals should consider consulting a relevant specialist.
The workforce across agencies should, as far as possible, reflect the local community. Practitioners should have training to ensure that they have a good understanding of the culture of families they are working with. Interpreters should be provided if no practitioner is available who speaks a language in which the family members can communicate easily.

Psychological intervention

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression or a first episode of psychosis are offered a psychological intervention.

Rationale

Psychological interventions (in conjunction with antipsychotic medication, or on their own if medication is declined or not needed) can improve outcomes for bipolar depression and psychosis. The psychological intervention will be based on a psychological assessment and formulation, and will aim to reduce distress, promote social and educational recovery, reduce social anxiety and depression, and prevent relapse in children and young people.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression or a first episode of psychosis are offered a psychological intervention.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression who receive cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy.
Denominator – the number of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of children and young people newly diagnosed with a first episode of psychosis who receive cognitive behavioural therapy.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive cognitive behavioural therapy.
Denominator – the number of children and young people newly diagnosed with a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcomes
a) Relapse rates for children and young people with bipolar depression.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Relapse rates for children and young people with psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, healthcare professionals and commissioners

Service providers (such as child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that a psychological intervention is available as a treatment option for children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression or a first episode of psychosis. They should ensure that practitioners are trained and have the appropriate competencies to deliver psychological interventions.
Healthcare professionals (such as psychologists, psychiatrists and psychotherapists) offer a psychological intervention to children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression or a first episode of psychosis.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) commission services that offer a psychological intervention to children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression or a first episode of psychosis.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Children and young people who are diagnosed with bipolar depression or a first episode of psychosis are offered a psychological therapy. This involves meeting a healthcare professional on their own or with a parent or carer to talk about their feelings and thoughts, which can help them to find ways to cope with their symptoms. For children and young people with psychosis, psychological therapy works better when they also take antipsychotic medication (medicine to help with psychosis).

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Psychological intervention
Children and young people with a first episode of psychosis should be offered cognitive behavioural therapy. It should be delivered in at least 16 planned sessions, follow a treatment manual and include at least 1 of the following:
  • normalising
  • personal monitoring
  • promoting alternative ways of coping
  • reducing distress
  • improving functioning.
Children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar depression should be offered cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy. The intervention should be delivered over at least 3 months and have a published evidence-based manual describing how it should be delivered.
[Adapted from Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.3.28 and Bipolar disorder (NICE guideline CG185) recommendation 1.11.11 (key priority for implementation)]

Equality and diversity considerations

The delivery and duration of a psychological intervention should be adjusted if necessary to take account of any learning disabilities, autism or cognitive impairment a child or young person with bipolar depression or psychosis has, and healthcare professionals should consider consulting a relevant specialist.
Specialist mental health services should provide children and young people from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds with culturally appropriate psychological and psychosocial treatment, and address cultural and ethnic differences in beliefs about biological, social and family influences on mental states.

Support for carers

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Parents and carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia are given information about carer-focused education and support.

Rationale

Carer-focused education and support enhances engagement and reduces carer burden and psychological distress, and may improve the carer’s quality of life. As part of the initial process of assessment and engagement, carer-focused education and support can also help carers of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia to be able to identify and monitor symptoms of concern.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that parents and carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia are given information about carer-focused education and support.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia whose parents or carers receive information about carer-focused education and support.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose parents or carers receive information about carer-focused education and support.
Denominator – the number of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
a) Satisfaction of parents and carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia with the information and support provided to meet their own needs.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Quality of life for parents and carers of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as GP surgeries, community health services, child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that processes are in place for parents or carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia to be given information and encouragement to participate in carer-focused education and support.
Health and social care practitioners (such as psychologists, social workers and GPs) give parents or carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia information about carer-focused education and support, and encourage them to participate.
Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) ensure that carer-focused education and support is available, and that appropriate referral pathways are in place for parents or carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Parents or carers of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia are given information about education and support. This can help carers to cope by improving their understanding of the condition and treatments for it, and giving them the opportunity to discuss their experiences with others.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Carer-focused education and support
This will include information about support groups and education programmes available locally, including those provided by the third sector. Support groups and education programmes will provide information, mutual support and open discussion to carers through voluntary participation. Support groups and education programmes should be available as needed and offer a positive message about recovery.
[Adapted from Bipolar disorder (NICE guideline CG185) recommendation 1.1.18 and Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.1.14]

Equality and diversity considerations

If a person does not have access to specialist training or support near their home, and has difficulty travelling long distances (because of the financial cost or other reasons), they may need additional support.
Equality of language and capability in training carers needs to be considered.

Healthy lifestyle advice

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia are given healthy lifestyle advice at diagnosis and at annual review.

Rationale

As they get older, children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia have poorer physical health than the general population and a reduced life expectancy. Health problems may sometimes be linked to lifestyle factors and risky behaviours, and are exacerbated by the use of antipsychotic drugs. It is important that primary care and specialist mental health services take a proactive approach to promoting positive health behaviours from a young age by giving age-appropriate healthy lifestyle advice at diagnosis and at annual review.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia are given healthy lifestyle advice at diagnosis.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia being supported in primary care or specialist mental health services are given healthy lifestyle advice at their annual review.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who receive healthy lifestyle advice at diagnosis.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive healthy lifestyle advice at diagnosis.
Denominator – the number of children and young people with a new diagnosis of bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who receive healthy lifestyle advice at their annual review.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive healthy lifestyle advice at their annual review.
Denominator – the number of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are supported in primary care or specialist mental health services.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcomes
a) Obesity rates in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data on BMI values are included in the ‘care.data’ extract for the Health and Social Care Information Centre (not specific to children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia).
b) Physical activity in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Drug use in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
d) Alcohol consumption in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data on alcohol consumption are included in the ‘care.data’ extract for the Health and Social Care Information Centre (not specific to children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia).
e) Smoking rates in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data on smoking status are included in the ‘care.data’ extract for the Health and Social Care Information Centre (not specific to children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia).
f) Infection rates for sexually transmitted diseases in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
g) Premature mortality of people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, healthcare professionals and commissioners

Service providers (such as GP surgeries, community health services, child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that processes are place for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia to receive age-appropriate healthy lifestyle advice at diagnosis and at annual review.
Healthcare professionals (such as GPs, psychologists and mental health nurses) offer age-appropriate healthy lifestyle advice to children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia at diagnosis and at annual review.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) commission services that offer age-appropriate healthy lifestyle advice to children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia at diagnosis and at annual review.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia should be offered advice that is suitable for their age at diagnosis and at annual review on healthy eating, how to make sure they get enough exercise, practising safe sex and the importance of avoiding drug and alcohol misuse and smoking. If they smoke, they should be given advice on how to stop.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Healthy lifestyle advice
Age-appropriate advice on healthy eating, physical activity, drug and alcohol use, smoking and sexual health.
[Adapted from Bipolar disorder (NICE guideline CG185), recommendation 1.8.2 and Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155), recommendations 1.3.4 and 1.5.13.]

Equality and diversity considerations

Healthcare professionals should be aware of the impact of social factors (such as inadequate housing, lack of access to affordable physical activity, poor cooking skills and limited budgets for food) on continued healthy eating and physical activity.
Healthcare professionals should take into account cultural and communication needs when giving healthy lifestyle advice to a child or young person.

Monitoring for side effects of antipsychotic medication

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic medication have their treatment monitored for side effects.

Rationale

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia are particularly vulnerable to the adverse side effects of antipsychotic medication, including rapid weight gain and metabolic disturbances. This, combined with higher rates of smoking, leads to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders than the general population. Regular monitoring will allow antipsychotic medication to be adjusted so that side effects are minimised, and so that physical health interventions can be offered if needed.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic medication have their treatment monitored for side effects.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic medication who have a record of baseline physical health investigations.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have a record of baseline physical health investigations.
Denominator – the number of children and young people newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic medication.
Data source: Local data collection. The Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health (POMH-UK) audit-based quality improvement programme on prescribing antipsychotics for children and adolescents includes data (for participating trusts) on documented tests and measures taken before starting antipsychotic treatment.
b) Proportion of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia newly prescribed antipsychotic medication who have a record of side-effect monitoring 12 weeks after starting treatment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have a record of side-effect monitoring 12 weeks after starting treatment.
Denominator – the number of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia newly prescribed antipsychotic medication.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Proportion of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic medication for more than a year with a record of side-effect monitoring within the last 6 months.
Numerator – the number in the denominator with a record of side-effect monitoring within the last 6 months.
Denominator – the number of children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic medication for more than a year.
Data source: Local data collection. The (POMH-UK) audit-based quality improvement programme on prescribing antipsychotics for children and adolescents includes data (for participating trusts) on a documented review of therapeutic response and side effects of antipsychotic medication at least once every 6 months.
Outcome
a) Obesity rates in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data on BMI values are included in the ‘care.data’ extract for the Health and Social Care Information Centre (not specific to children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia).
b) Incidence of cardiovascular disease in people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected for adults with schizophrenia using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, question 30.
c) Incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected for adults with schizophrenia using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, question 30.

What the quality statement means for service providers, healthcare professionals and commissioners

Service providers (such as GP surgeries, community health services, child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that systems and protocols are in place to monitor the side effects of antipsychotic medication for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia, and to share the results when the child or young person is in the care of primary and secondary care services.
Healthcare professionals (such as GPs, mental health nurses, and psychiatrists) monitor the side effects of antipsychotic medication for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia, and share the results when the child or young person is in the care of primary and secondary care services.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) commission services that monitor the side effects of antipsychotic medication for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia. They should also ensure that arrangements are in place to share the results of monitoring when the child or young person is in the care of primary and secondary services.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are taking antipsychotic medication (medicine to help with psychosis) should see their healthcare professional regularly to check for side effects. This will include regular checks such as blood tests and measurements of their weight, height, waist, hip, pulse and blood pressure, to check for problems that may be caused by their medication (such as weight gain, diabetes, and heart, lung and breathing problems). The results of all health checks should be discussed with the child or young person and their parents or carers and shared between their GP surgery and mental health team.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Baseline physical health investigations
Before starting antipsychotic medication, the following baseline investigations should be undertaken and recorded:
  • weight and height (both plotted on a growth chart)
  • waist and hip circumference
  • pulse and blood pressure
  • fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood lipid profile and prolactin levels
  • assessment of any movement disorders
  • assessment of nutritional status, diet and level of physical activity.
[Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.3.16 and Bipolar disorder (NICE guideline CG185) recommendation 1.10.5]
Monitoring for side effects of antipsychotic medication
Side effects of antipsychotic medication can be:
  • metabolic (including weight gain and diabetes)
  • extrapyramidal (including akathisia, dyskinesia and dystonia)
  • cardiovascular (including prolonging the QT interval)
  • hormonal (including increasing plasma prolactin)
  • other (including unpleasant subjective experiences).
The following should be monitored and recorded regularly and systematically throughout treatment with antipsychotic medication, but especially during titration:
  • efficacy, including changes in symptoms and behaviour
  • side effects of treatment, taking into account overlap between certain side effects and clinical features of schizophrenia (for example, the overlap between akathisia and agitation or anxiety)
  • the emergence of movement disorders
  • weight, weekly for the first 6 weeks, then at 12 weeks and then every 6 months (plotted on a growth chart)
  • height every 6 months (plotted on a growth chart)
  • waist and hip circumference every 6 months (plotted on a percentile chart)
  • pulse and blood pressure (plotted on a percentile chart) at 12 weeks and then every 6 months
  • fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, blood lipid and prolactin levels at 12 weeks and then every 6 months
  • adherence
  • physical health.
[Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.3.19 (key priority for implementation) and Bipolar disorder (NICE guideline CG185) recommendation 1.10.8]

Equality and diversity considerations

Healthcare professionals should take into account cultural and communication needs when explaining how the side effects of antipsychotic medication will be monitored.

Home treatment in crisis (developmental)

This quality statement is taken from the bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in bipolar disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people and should be read in full.
Developmental quality statements set out an emergent area of cutting-edge service delivery or technology currently found in a minority of providers and indicating outstanding performance. They will need specific, significant changes to be put in place, such as redesign of services or new equipment.

Quality statement

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are in crisis are offered home treatment if it is suitable.

Rationale

Hospital admissions can be disruptive for a child or young person and their family or carers. It may be possible to avoid hospital admission if treatment and support can be provided at home. A crisis assessment will determine whether home treatment is a suitable option, based on the child or young person’s needs, risks and circumstances.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are in crisis are offered home treatment if it is suitable.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of crisis episodes in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia that are assessed for the suitability of home treatment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator that are assessed for the suitability of home treatment.
Denominator – the number of crisis episodes in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Proportion of crisis episodes in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia that are assessed as suitable for home treatment and result in home treatment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator that result in home treatment.
Denominator – the number of crisis episodes in children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia that are assessed as suitable for home treatment.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Mental health admission rates for children and young people.
Data source: Local data collection. National data are collected in the Health and Social Care Information Centre Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Data Set.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as child and adolescent mental health services and early intervention in psychosis services) ensure that home treatment is available for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are in crisis.
Health and social care practitioners (such as psychologists and social workers) assess the suitability of home treatment for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are in crisis.
Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups and NHS England) commission home treatment services for children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who are in crisis.

What the quality statement means for children, young people, parents and carers

Children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia who have a crisis should have a discussion with their mental health professional to agree if treatment at home would be better for them than treatment in hospital. Treatment in hospital can be very disruptive (for example, they may miss time in school).

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Crisis
A crisis may be suicidal behaviour or intention, panic attacks or extreme anxiety, psychotic episodes, or behaviour that seems out of control or irrational and likely to endanger the person or others.
[Mental health crisis care concordat, Department of Health (2014) and expert opinion]
Assessment for suitability for home treatment
A crisis assessment should be carried out by health and social care professionals who are experienced and competent in crisis working. The decision to start home treatment should depend not on the diagnosis, but on:
  • the level of distress
  • the severity of the problems
  • the vulnerability of the child or young person and issues of safety and support at home
  • the child or young person’s ability to adhere to treatment.
[Service user experience in adult mental health (NICE guideline CG136) recommendation 1.5.3 and Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people (NICE guideline CG155) recommendation 1.5.3]
Home treatment
A service that assesses, supports and provides treatment at home to promote engagement and avoid admission to hospital. The service should be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
[Service user experience in adult mental health (NICE guideline CG136) full guideline and recommendation 1.5.7]

Equality and diversity considerations

Home treatment should be available to all children and young people with bipolar disorder, psychosis or schizophrenia in crisis, regardless of their age, if it is assessed as suitable.
Children and young people with psychosis from black and minority ethnic backgrounds are more frequently subject to compulsory admissions. It is therefore important that health and social care practitioners take into consideration ethnic and cultural backgrounds when making assessments for suitability for home treatment, so that compulsory admission is avoided whenever possible.

Referral to early intervention in psychosis services

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Adults with a first episode of psychosis start treatment in early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks of referral.

Rationale

Early intervention in psychosis services can improve clinical outcomes, such as admission rates, symptoms and relapse, for people with a first episode of psychosis. They do this by providing a full range of evidence based treatment including pharmacological, psychological, social, occupation and educational interventions. Treatment from these services should be accessed as soon as possible to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that early intervention in psychosis services are in place.
Data source: Local data collection
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that local referral pathways are available for adults with a first episode of psychosis to start treatment in early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks of referral.
Data source: Local data collection
Process
Proportion of adults referred with a first episode of psychosis who receive treatment from early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks of referral.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive treatment from early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks.
Denominator – the number of adults referred with a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
a) Acute hospital admission rates.
Data source: Local data collection. National data are collected in the Health and Social Care Information Centre Mental health and learning disabilities data set.
b) Duration of untreated psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection. National data are collected in Health and Social Care Information Centre Mental health and learning disabilities data set.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners.

Service providers (such as GPs, community health services, mental health services and drug and alcohol misuse services) ensure that systems and protocols are in place for people with a first episode of psychosis to be referred to mental health services and start treatment in an early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks of referral.
Health and social care practitioners are aware of local referral pathways for adults with a first episode of psychosis and ensure that they start treatment in an early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks of referral.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups, NHS England local area teams and local authorities) ensure that they commission early intervention in psychosis services and ensure that local referral pathways are in place for adults with a first episode of psychosis to start treatment in early intervention in psychosis services within 2 weeks of referral. This needs integrated commissioning.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Adults with a first episode of psychosis start treatment within 2 weeks of being referred to an early intervention service. This service provides support and treatment to help people with symptoms of psychosis. Early treatment (within 2 weeks) in these services is often successful at treating symptoms and preventing symptoms from coming back, and helps to reduce the number of people who need to be admitted to hospital.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Early intervention in psychosis services
Early intervention in psychosis services are multidisciplinary community mental health teams that assess and treat people with a first episode of psychosis without delay (within 2 weeks). They aim to provide a full range of pharmacological, psychological, social, occupation and educational interventions for people with psychosis.
Early intervention in psychosis services provide care for adults with a first episode of psychosis during the first 3 years of psychotic illness. However, this may be extended if the person has not made a stable recovery from psychosis or schizophrenia.
Services should also take into account the ‘negative’ symptoms of psychosis and schizophrenia (such as emotional apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self neglect), and ensure services are accessible for people with these symptoms. [Achieving better access to mental health service by 2020 (Department of Health), Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendations 1.3.1.2 and 1.3.1.3 and expert consensus]

Equality and diversity considerations

Early intervention in psychosis services should ensure that culturally appropriate psychological and psychosocial treatment is provided to people from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds ensuring they address cultural and ethnic differences in beliefs regarding biological, social and family influences on mental states.

Cognitive behavioural therapy

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp).

Rationale

CBTp in conjunction with antipsychotic medication, or on its own if medication is declined, can improve outcomes such as psychotic symptoms. It should form part of a broad based approach that combines different treatment options tailored to the needs of individual service users.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that CBTp is available to adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of adults with psychosis who receive CBTp.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive CBTp.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, questions 42 and 44.
b) Proportion of adults with schizophrenia who receive CBTp.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive CBTp.
Denominator – the number of adults with schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ NAS audit of practice tool National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, questions 42 and 44.
Outcome
Relapse rates of psychosis and schizophrenia in adults.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as GPs, community health services and mental health services) ensure that systems are in place for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be offered CBTp. They should ensure that practitioners have appropriate competencies to deliver CBTp and have access to training.
Healthcare professionals ensure that they offer CBTp to adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups, NHS England local area teams and local authorities) commission CBTp services and ensure that referral pathways are in place for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be referred to these services.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered a psychological therapy called ‘cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis’ (sometimes shortened to CBTp). This involves meeting a healthcare professional on their own to talk about their feelings and thoughts, which can help them to find ways to cope with their symptoms.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp)
CBTp should be delivered over at least 16 planned sessions and:
  • follow a treatment manual so that:
    • people can establish links between their thoughts, feelings or actions and their current or past symptoms and functioning
    • the re evaluation of people's perceptions, beliefs or reasoning relates to the target symptoms
  • also include at least 1 of the following components:
    • people monitoring their own thoughts, feelings or behaviours about their symptoms or recurrence of symptoms
    • promoting alternative ways of coping with the target symptom
    • reducing distress
    • improving functioning. [Adapted from Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendation 1.3.7.1]

Equality and diversity considerations

For adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who have a learning disability or cognitive impairment, methods of delivering treatment and treatment duration should be adjusted if necessary to take account of the disability or impairment, with consideration given to consulting a relevant specialist.

Family intervention

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Family members of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered family intervention.

Rationale

Family intervention can improve coping skills and relapse rates of adults with psychosis and schizophrenia. Family intervention should involve the person with psychosis or schizophrenia if practical, and form part of a broad based approach that combines different treatment options tailored to the needs of individual service users.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that family intervention is available to family members of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of adults with psychosis whose family members receive family intervention.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose family members receive family intervention.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis who live with or are in close contact with family members.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, questions 43 and 44.
b) Proportion of adults with schizophrenia whose family members receive family intervention.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose family members receive family intervention.
Denominator – the number of adults with schizophrenia who live with or are in close contact with family members.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, questions 43 and 44.
Outcome
Relapse rates of psychosis and schizophrenia in adults.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as GPs, community health services and mental health services) ensure that systems are in place for family members of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be offered family intervention. They should receive this intervention from practitioners with appropriate competencies to deliver it and who have access to training.
Healthcare professionals ensure that they offer family intervention to family members of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups, NHS England local area teams and local authorities) commission family intervention services and ensure that referral pathways are in place for family members of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be referred to this service.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Family members of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered psychological therapies called family intervention. These help support families to work together to help adults with psychosis and schizophrenia cope and to reduce stress.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Family members
Family members include carers and family members who the person with psychosis or schizophrenia lives with or is in close contact with. [Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178)]
Family intervention
Family intervention is a psychological therapy that should:
  • include the person with psychosis or schizophrenia if practical
  • be carried out for between 3 months and 1 year
  • include at least 10 planned sessions
  • take account of the whole family's preference for either single family intervention or multi family group intervention
  • take account of the relationship between the main carer and the person with psychosis or schizophrenia
  • have a specific supportive, educational or treatment function and include negotiated problem solving or crisis management work. [Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendation 1.3.7.2]

Equality and diversity considerations

For adults with psychosis or schizophrenia or members of their family who have a learning disability or cognitive impairment, methods of delivering treatment and treatment duration should be adjusted if necessary to take account of the disability or impairment, with consideration given to consulting a relevant specialist.
The workforce across agencies should, as far as possible, reflect the local community. Practitioners should have training to ensure that they have a good understanding of the culture of families they are working with. Interpreters should be provided if no practitioner is available who speaks a language in which the family members can communicate easily.

Treatment with clozapine

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Adults with schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment with at least 2 antipsychotic drugs are offered clozapine.

Rationale

Clozapine is the only drug with established efficacy in reducing symptoms and the risk of relapse for adults with treatment resistant schizophrenia. It is licensed only for use in service users whose schizophrenia has not responded to, or who are intolerant of, conventional antipsychotic drugs.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that adults with schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment with at least 2 antipsychotics drugs (at least 1 of which should be a non clozapine second generation antipsychotic) are offered clozapine.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of adults with schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment with at least 2 antipsychotic drugs (at least 1 of which should be a non clozapine second generation antipsychotic) who receive clozapine.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive clozapine.
Denominator – the number of adults with schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment with at least 2 antipsychotic drugs (at least 1 of which should be a non clozapine second generation antipsychotic).
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Relapse rates of schizophrenia in adults.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, healthcare professionals and commissioners

Service providers (such as GP practices, community health services, mental health services and hospitals) ensure that there are procedures and protocols in place to monitor the prescribing of clozapine for adults with schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment with at least 2 antipsychotic drugs (at least 1 of which should be a non clozapine second generation antipsychotic).
Healthcare professionals ensure that adults with schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment with at least 2 antipsychotic drugs (at least 1 of which should be a non clozapine second generation antipsychotic) are offered clozapine.
Commissioners (such as NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) monitor rates of prescribing of clozapine and commission services only from providers who can demonstrate that they have procedures and protocols in place to monitor this prescribing.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Adults with schizophrenia that has not improved after treatment with at least 2 different antipsychotic drugs are offered an antipsychotic drug called clozapine to try and improve their symptoms.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Schizophrenia that has not responded adequately to treatment
Schizophrenia that has not improved despite the sequential use of adequate doses of at least 2 different antipsychotic drugs. At least 1 of the drugs should be a non clozapine second generation antipsychotic. [Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendation 1.5.7.2]

Supported employment programmes

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work are offered supported employment programmes.

Rationale

Supported employment programmes can increase employment rates in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia. It is estimated that just 5–15% of people with schizophrenia are in employment, and people with severe mental illness (including psychosis and schizophrenia) are 6 to 7 times more likely to be unemployed than the general population. Unemployment can have a negative effect on the mental and physical health of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work are offered supported employment programmes.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work who receive supported employment programmes.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive supported employment programmes.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work.
Data source: Local data collection. Contained within the Royal College of Psychiatrists' National Audit of Schizophrenia.
Outcome
Employment rates for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. National data are collected in the Health and Social Care Information Centre Mental health and learning disabilities data set.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as GP practices, community health services and mental health services) ensure that systems are in place for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work to be offered supported employment programmes.
Health and social care practitioners ensure that they are aware of local referral pathways to supported employment programmes, and offer these to adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work.
Commissioners (such as NHS England area teams and clinical commissioning groups) ensure that they commission services that offer supported employment programmes and ensure that referral pathways are in place for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who wish to find or return to work are offered a place on an employment scheme that supports them to find or return to work quickly.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Supported employment programmes
Supported employment programmes, sometimes referred to as individual placement and support, are any approach to vocational rehabilitation that attempts to place service users in competitive employment immediately. Supported employment can begin with a short period of preparation, but this has to last less than 1 month and not involve work placement in a sheltered setting, training or transitional employment. [Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) full guideline]

Equality and diversity considerations

Services should work in partnership with local stakeholders, including those representing black, Asian and minority ethnic groups, to enable adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to stay in work or education or access new employment, volunteering and educational opportunities.
Services should make reasonable adjustments to help adults with learning disabilities and psychosis or schizophrenia stay in work or education or find new employment, volunteering and educational opportunities.
Some adults may be unable to work or unsuccessful in finding employment. In these cases, other occupational or education activities should be considered, including pre vocational training.

Assessing physical health

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia have specific comprehensive physical health assessments.

Rationale

Life expectancy for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia is between 15 and 20 years less than for people in the general population. This may be because people with psychosis or schizophrenia often have physical health problems, including cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, that can be exacerbated by the use of antipsychotics. Comprehensively assessing physical health will enable health and social care practitioners to offer physical health interventions if necessary.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that adults with psychosis or schizophrenia receive comprehensive physical health assessments.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of adults having treatment for first episode of psychosis who receive a comprehensive physical health assessment within 12 weeks.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who receive a comprehensive physical health assessment within 12 weeks.
Denominator – the number of adults having treatment for a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using NHS England’s Commissioning for Quality Innovation (CQUIN) indicator Improving physical healthcare to reduce premature mortality in people with severe mental illness, indicator 1 and the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, questions 30 to 39.
b) Proportion of adults having treatment for first episode of psychosis who have a comprehensive physical health assessment 1 year after starting treatment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have a comprehensive physical health assessment 1 year after starting treatment.
Denominator – the number of adults having treatment for a first episode of psychosis.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using NHS England’s Commissioning for Quality Innovation (CQUIN) indicator Improving physical healthcare to reduce premature mortality in people with severe mental illness, indicator 1 and the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, questions 30 to 39.
c) Proportion of adults with psychosis and schizophrenia who have an annual comprehensive physical health assessment.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who have an annual comprehensive physical health assessment.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using NICE Quality and Outcomes Framework menu indicators NM15, NM16, NM17, NM18 and NM42.
Outcome
Premature mortality of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Contained within the NHS outcomes framework.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as GPs, community health services and mental health services) ensure that protocols are in place to carry out comprehensive physical health assessments in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia, and share the results (under shared care arrangements) when the service user is in the care of primary and secondary services.
Health and social care practitioners ensure that they carry out comprehensive physical health assessments in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia, and share the results (under shared care arrangements) when the service user is in the care of primary and secondary services.
Commissioners (such as NHS England local area teams and local authorities) ensure that they commission services that can demonstrate they are carrying out comprehensive physical health assessments in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia, and include this requirement in continuous training programmes. They should also ensure that shared care arrangements are in place when the service user is in the care of primary and secondary services, to ensure that the results of assessments are shared.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia should have a regular health check (at least once a year) that includes taking weight, waist, pulse and blood pressure measurements and blood tests. This checks for problems such as weight gain, diabetes, and heart, lung and breathing problems that are common in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia and often related to treatment. The results should be shared between their GP surgery and mental health team.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Comprehensive physical health assessments
Comprehensive physical health assessments for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia should focus on physical health problems common in people with psychosis and schizophrenia by monitoring the following:
  • weight (plotted on a chart) – weekly for the first 6 weeks, then at 12 weeks, at 1 year and then annually
  • waist circumference annually (plotted on a chart)
  • pulse and blood pressure at 12 weeks, at 1 year and then annually
  • fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and blood lipid levels at 12 weeks, at 1 year and then annually
  • overall physical health.
Interventions should be offered in line with NICE guidelines on lipid modification, preventing type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, prevention of cardiovascular disease and physical activity. [Adapted from Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendations 1.1.3.2, 1.5.3.2 and 1.5.3.3]
Shared care arrangements
Secondary care teams should assess the service user’s physical health and the effects of antipsychotic medication for at least the first 12 months or until the person’s condition has stabilised, whichever is longer. Thereafter, assessments may be transferred to primary care under shared care arrangements and should take place at least annually. Service users may no longer be under the care of shared care arrangements if they are discharged from secondary care services [Adapted from Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendation 1.3.6.5]

Promoting healthy eating, physical activity and smoking cessation

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes, and help to stop smoking.

Rationale

Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are higher than those for the general population. Rates of tobacco smoking are also high in people with psychosis or schizophrenia. These factors contribute to premature mortality. Offering combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes and help to stop smoking can reduce these rates and improve physical and mental health.

Quality measures

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who smoke are offered help to stop smoking.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
a) Proportion of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who received combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes within the past 12 months.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who received combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes within the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, question 40.
b) Proportion of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who smoke who received help to stop smoking within the past 12 months.
Numerator – the number in the denominator who received help to stop smoking within the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia who smoke.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, question 40.
Outcome
a) Type 2 diabetes rates in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
b) Obesity rates in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.
c) Smoking rates in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection. Data can be collected using the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ National audit of schizophrenia Audit of practice tool, question 31.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (mental health services) ensure that systems are in place for adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be offered combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes, and help to stop smoking.
Health and social care practitioners ensure that they are aware of local healthy eating and physical activity programmes and offer these to adults with psychosis or schizophrenia. They should also offer them help to stop smoking if they smoke.
Commissioners (such as NHS England local area team and local authorities) ensure that they commission services that make sure adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered combined healthy eating and physical activity programmes, and help to stop smoking.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered help with healthy eating and physical activity to help prevent weight gain, diabetes and other health problems that are common in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia and often related to treatment. Smoking is also common in adults with psychosis or schizophrenia and those who smoke should be offered help to stop smoking.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Help to stop smoking
Health and social care practitioners should consider one of the following to help people with psychosis or schizophrenia stop smoking, even if previous attempts have been unsuccessful:
  • nicotine replacement therapy (usually a combination of transdermal patches with a short acting product such as an inhalator, gum, lozenges or spray) for people with psychosis or schizophrenia or
  • bupropionAt the time of publication of Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults NICE guideline CG178 (2014), bupropion was contraindicated in people with bipolar disorder. Therefore, it is not recommended for people with psychosis unless they have a diagnosis of schizophrenia. for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or
  • varenicline for people with psychosis or schizophrenia.
They should warn people taking bupropion or varenicline that there is an increased risk of adverse neuropsychiatric symptoms and monitor them regularly, particularly in the first 2–3 weeks.
Health and social care practitioners should be aware of the potential significant impact of reducing cigarette smoking on the metabolism of other drugs, particularly clozapine and olanzapine. [Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178)]

Equality and diversity considerations

When referring people to services, health and social care practitioners should take into account the ‘negative’ symptoms of psychosis and schizophrenia (such as emotional apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self neglect), and ensure services are accessible for people with these symptoms.
Health and social care practitioners should be aware of the impact of social factors, such as inadequate housing, lack of access to affordable physical activity, poor cooking skills and limited budget for food, on continued healthy eating and physical activity.

Carer-focused education and support

This quality statement is taken from the psychosis and schizophrenia in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in psychosis and schizophrenia in adults care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered carer focused education and support programmes.

Rationale

Providing carer focused education and support reduces carer burden and psychological distress, and may improve the carer’s quality of life. As part of the initial process of assessment and engagement, carer focused education and support programmes can also help carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be able to identify symptoms of concern.

Quality measures

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered a carer focused education and support programme.
Data source: Local data collection.
Process
Proportion of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia whose carers receive a carer focused education and support programme.
Numerator – the number in the denominator whose carers receive a carer focused education and support programme.
Denominator – the number of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia with an identified carer.
Data source: Local data collection.
Outcome
Quality of life for carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Data source: Local data collection.

What the quality statement means for service providers, health and social care practitioners, and commissioners

Service providers (such as community health services and mental health services) ensure that systems are in place for carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia to be offered a carer focused education and support programme.
Health and social care practitioners ensure that they are aware of the role of carers and offer a carer focused education and support programme to carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia.
Commissioners (such as clinical commissioning groups and NHS England local area teams) ensure that carer focused education and support programmes are available and that the appropriate referral pathways are in place for carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia. They should also ensure that community and mental health teams are able to work collaboratively with education and support programmes.

What the quality statement means for patients, service users and carers

Carers of adults with psychosis or schizophrenia are offered an education and support programme, which provides information, mutual support and discussion. This can help carers to cope and give them information, such as which symptoms of concern they should look out for.

Source guidance

Definitions of terms used in this quality statement

Carers
Carers can be anyone who has regular close contact with adults with psychosis and schizophrenia, including advocates, friends or family members, although some family members may choose not to be carers [Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178)]
Carer-focused education and support programme
A carer focused education and support programme should be offered as soon as possible. Such groups provide information, mutual support and open discussion to carers through voluntary participation. The programme should be available as needed and offer a positive message about recovery. [Adapted from Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults (NICE guideline CG178) recommendation 1.1.5.7]

Equality and diversity considerations

If a person does not have access to specialist training or support near their homes, and has difficulty travelling long distances (because of the financial cost or other reasons), they may need additional support.
Equality of language and capability in training carers need to be considered.

Effective interventions library

Effective interventions library

Successful effective interventions library details

Implementation

Information for the public

NICE has written information for the public on each of the following topics.

Pathway information

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Supporting information

Glossary

cognitive behavioural therapy
electrocardiogram
child and adolescent mental health services
glycosylated haemoglobin
British National Formulary
British National Formulary for Children
summary of product characteristics

Paths in this pathway

Pathway created: February 2014 Last updated: May 2018

© NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights.

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