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Diabetes in pregnancy overview

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Diabetes in pregnancy HAI

About

What is covered

Approximately 650,000 women give birth in England and Wales each year, and 2–5% of pregnancies involve women with diabetes. Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and to the developing fetus. Pregnancy outcomes for women with diabetes and their babies are poor compared to those for women who do not have diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing.
Miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour are more common in women with pre-existing diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy can worsen rapidly during pregnancy. Stillbirth, congenital malformations, macrosomia, birth injury, perinatal mortality and postnatal adaptation problems (such as hypoglycaemia) are more common in babies born to women with pre-existing diabetes.

Updates

Updates to this pathway

2 September 2014 Minor maintenance updates
25 January 2013 Minor maintenance updates
12 June 2012 Minor maintenance updates
29 May 2012 Minor maintenance updates
25 October 2011 Minor maintenance updates

Information for the public

NICE produces information for the public that summarises, in plain English, the recommendations that NICE makes to healthcare and other professionals.
NICE has written information for the public explaining its guidance on each of the following topics.

Patient-centred care

Patients and healthcare professionals have rights and responsibilities as set out in the NHS Constitution for England – all NICE guidance is written to reflect these. Treatment and care should take into account individual needs and preferences. People should have the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and treatment, in partnership with their healthcare professionals. If someone does not have the capacity to make decisions, healthcare professionals should follow the Department of Health's advice on consent, the code of practice that accompanies the Mental Capacity Act and the supplementary code of practice on deprivation of liberty safeguards. In Wales, healthcare professionals should follow advice on consent from the Welsh Government.
If the person is under 16, healthcare professionals should follow the guidelines in Seeking consent: working with children. If a young person is moving between paediatric and adult services their care should be planned and managed according to the best practice guidance described in the Department of Health's Transition: getting it right for young people.

Short Text

Management of diabetes and its complications from pre-conception to the postnatal period

What is covered

Approximately 650,000 women give birth in England and Wales each year, and 2–5% of pregnancies involve women with diabetes. Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and to the developing fetus. Pregnancy outcomes for women with diabetes and their babies are poor compared to those for women who do not have diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing.
Miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and preterm labour are more common in women with pre-existing diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy can worsen rapidly during pregnancy. Stillbirth, congenital malformations, macrosomia, birth injury, perinatal mortality and postnatal adaptation problems (such as hypoglycaemia) are more common in babies born to women with pre-existing diabetes.

Updates

Updates to this pathway

2 September 2014 Minor maintenance updates
25 January 2013 Minor maintenance updates
12 June 2012 Minor maintenance updates
29 May 2012 Minor maintenance updates
25 October 2011 Minor maintenance updates

Sources

The NICE guidance that was used to create the pathway.
Diabetes in pregnancy. NICE clinical guideline 63 (2008)

Quality standards

Quality statements

Structured education

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes and/or their carers receive a structured educational programme that fulfils the nationally agreed criteria from the time of diagnosis, with annual review and access to ongoing education.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes and/or their carers receive a structured educational programme that fulfils the nationally agreed criteria from the time of diagnosis, with annual review and access to ongoing education.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes who are offered structured education from the time of diagnosis.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator offered structured education from the time of diagnosis.
Denominator – the number of people diagnosed with diabetes in the past 12 months.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes who start structured education from the time of diagnosis.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator starting structured education from the time of diagnosis.
Denominator – the number of people diagnosed with diabetes in the past 12 months.
c) Proportion of people with diabetes who complete structured education from the time of diagnosis.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator completing structured education from the time of diagnosis.
Denominator – the number of people diagnosed with diabetes in the past 12 months.
d) Proportion of people with diabetes whose structured education has been reviewed and reinforced annually.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator whose structured education has been reviewed and reinforced within the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes diagnosed over 12 months ago.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure that staff are enabled to offer structured educational programmes that fulfil nationally agreed criteria and are ongoing and accessible to all people with diabetes and/or their carers.
Healthcare professionals ensure they offer structured educational programmes that fulfil nationally agreed criteria to people with diabetes and/or their carers as part of their ongoing care.
Commissioners ensure they commission structured educational programmes that fulfil nationally agreed criteria and are ongoing and accessible to people with diabetes and/or their carers.
People with diabetes and/or their carers receive a diabetes education course to suit their needs that is delivered by trained staff. A healthcare professional should check every year whether the person would find further diabetes education useful, and diabetes education should continue to be available.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendation 1.1.1 (key priority for implementation).
NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendations 1.8.1.1 and 1.8.1.6.
NICE clinical guideline 10 recommendation 1.1.1.6.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection. Contained within NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support clinical criteria, criteria 1-4.
Process
a), b), c) and d) Local data collection. Contained within NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support clinical criteria, criterion 1. The National Diabetes Audit collects data on structured education.

Definitions

A patient educational programme should meet five key criteria laid down by the Department of Health and the Diabetes UK Patient Education Working Group:
  • Any programme should be evidence-based, and suit the needs of the individual. The programme should have specific aims and learning objectives. It should support the learner plus his or her family and carers in developing attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills to self-manage diabetes.
  • The programme should have a structured curriculum that is theory-driven, evidence-based and resource-effective, has supporting materials, and is written down.
  • The programme should be delivered by trained educators who have an understanding of educational theory appropriate to the age and needs of the learners, and who are trained and competent to deliver the principles and content of the programme.
  • The programme should be quality assured, and be reviewed by trained, competent, independent assessors who measure it against criteria that ensure consistency.
  • The outcomes from the programme should be regularly audited.
Full criteria available from Joint Department of Health and Diabetes UK Patient Education Working Group (2005) Structured Patient Education in Diabetes: Report from the Patient Education Working Group.
Patient education should also take into account the overarching principles of NICE technology appraisal 60.
There are a number of structured educational programmes available for diabetes. Some programmes will be more suitable for type 1 diabetes, and others for type 2 diabetes. Educators should select a programme and time its delivery tailored to the needs of the learner and/or the carer.

Equality and diversity considerations

All information about treatment and care, including a structured patient educational programme, should take into account age and social factors, language, accessibility, physical, sensory or learning difficulties, and should be ethnically and culturally appropriate. It should also be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate.

Nutrition and physical activity advice

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes receive personalised advice on nutrition and physical activity from an appropriately trained healthcare professional or as part of a structured educational programme.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes receive personalised advice on nutrition and physical activity from an appropriately trained healthcare professional or as part of a structured educational programme.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes who receive personalised advice on nutrition from either an appropriately trained healthcare professional or as part of a structured educational programme.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving personalised advice on nutrition from either an appropriately trained healthcare professional or as part of a structured educational programme.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes who receive personalised advice on physical activity.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving personalised advice on physical activity.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure that diabetes services provide access to personalised advice on nutrition and physical activity from an appropriately trained healthcare professional or as part of a structured educational programme.
Healthcare professionals ensure that personalised advice on nutrition and physical activity is provided to the person with diabetes when required.
Commissioners ensure they commission from a diabetes care pathway that incorporates access to personalised advice on nutrition and physical activity from an appropriately trained healthcare professional or as part of a structured educational programme.
People with diabetes are given advice on diet and exercise from a trained healthcare professional or as part of their diabetes course.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendation 1.2.1.1 (key priority for implementation).
NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendations 1.8.3.1 and 1.8.3.2.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection.
Process
a) and b) Local data collection. Contained within NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support clinical criteria, criterion 2.

Definitions

An appropriately trained healthcare professional is one with specific expertise and competencies in nutrition. This may include, but is not limited to, a registered dietitian who delivers nutritional advice on an individual basis or as part of a structured educational programme.
The healthcare professional should provide and time the advice about nutrition and physical activity appropriate to the needs of the person with diabetes.

Equality and diversity considerations

All information about treatment and care, including advice on nutrition and physical activity, should take into account age and social factors, language, physical, sensory or learning difficulties, and should be ethnically and culturally appropriate. It should also be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate.

Care planning

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes participate in annual care planning which leads to documented agreed goals and an action plan.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements and provision of resources to ensure that people with diabetes participate in annual care planning which leads to documented agreed goals and an action plan.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes who are offered annual care planning including documenting and agreeing goals and an action plan.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator offered annual care planning including documenting and agreeing goals and an action plan.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes who participate in annual care planning including documenting and agreeing goals and an action plan in the past 12 months.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator participating in annual care planning including documenting and agreeing goals and an action plan in the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
Outcome
Patient satisfaction with diabetes care using validated patient survey criteria.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure people with diabetes participate in annual care planning with documented agreed goals and an action plan, and to support this, provide training for healthcare professionals.
Healthcare professionals ensure they are competent to support people with diabetes to participate in their care and enable them to agree on specific achievable goals and an action plan in annual care planning.
Commissioners ensure services are commissioned that provide training for healthcare professionals and encourage people with diabetes to participate in their own care.
People with diabetes are involved in annual planning for their own care, which includes agreeing on the best way to manage their diabetes and setting personal goals.

Source clinical guideline references

Adapted from Joint Department of Health and Diabetes UK Care Planning Working Group (2006) Care Planning in Diabetes.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection.
Process
a) and b) Local data collection.
Outcome
Local data collection.

Definitions

Adapted from Joint Department of Health and Diabetes UK Care Planning Working Group (2006) section 3 Care Planning in Diabetes.
Care planning is defined as a process that actively involves people in deciding, agreeing and sharing responsibility for how to manage their diabetes. It aims to help people with diabetes achieve optimal health by partnering with healthcare professionals to learn about, manage, and cope with diabetes and its related conditions in their daily lives.
Care planning is underpinned by the principles of patient-centeredness and partnership. It is an ongoing process of communication, negotiation and joint decision-making in which both the person with diabetes and the healthcare professional(s) make an equal contribution to the consultation.
At each care planning consultation the healthcare professional(s) gives the patient the opportunity to:
  • share information about issues and concerns
  • share results of biomedical tests
  • discuss the experience of living with diabetes and address needs to manage obesity, food and physical activity
  • receive help to access support and services agree a plan for managing diabetes
  • address individual priorities and goals
  • identify priorities and/or goals that are jointly agreed including jointly setting a goal for HbA1c
  • identify detailed specific actions in response to identified priorities which include an agreed timescale.
Care planning incorporates:
  • nutritional advice
  • discussing psychological wellbeing
  • managing obesity
  • structured education
  • screening for complications
  • smoking cessation advice
  • physical activity
  • Expert Patients Programme
  • agreeing goals for HbA1c
  • agreeing plans for managing diabetes
  • discussing goals
  • follow-up support by telephone.
A guide to implementing care planning in diabetes is available from Diabetes UK, NHS National Diabetes Support Team, Department of Health and Health Foundation (2008) Year of Care - Getting to grips with the Year of Care: a practical guide.

Equality and diversity considerations

All information about treatment and care, including care planning, should take into account age and social factors, language, physical, sensory or learning difficulties, and should be ethnically and culturally appropriate. It should also be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate.

Glycaemic control

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes agree with their healthcare professional a documented personalised HbA1c target, usually between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%), and receive an ongoing review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes are able to agree with their healthcare professional a documented personalised HbA1c target, usually between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%), and receive an ongoing review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes with a measured HbA1c.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator with a measured HbA1c.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes who have an agreed target for HbA1c including a recently documented HbA1c.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator with an agreed target for HbA1c including a recently documented HbA1c.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
c) Proportion of people with diabetes achieving their HbA1c target.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator achieving their HbA1c target.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
d) Proportion of people with diabetes who have received a review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia in the previous 12 months.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving a review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia in the previous 12 months.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
Outcomes
a) Proportion of people with diabetes with a documented HbA1c between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%).
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator with a documented HbA1c between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%).
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
b) Reduction in complications associated with diabetes.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure local arrangements are in place to allow people with diabetes to agree and document a target HbA1c with their healthcare professional and receive ongoing review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia.
Healthcare professionals ensure they agree and document a target HbA1c with people with diabetes and ensure ongoing review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia.
Commissioners ensure they commission diabetes services that allow people with diabetes to agree and document a target HbA1c with their healthcare professional and receive ongoing review of treatment to minimise hypoglycaemia.
People with diabetes agree a target for HbA1c (a measure of blood sugar over 2-3 months), usually between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%), with their healthcare professional, and have their treatment reviewed continuously to help avoid low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia).

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendation 1.3.1. (key priority for implementation).
NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendation 1.9.2.4.
H2.Data source
Structure
Local data collection. DiabetesE and The National Diabetes Audit collect data on HbA1c levels.
Process
a), b), (c) and (d) Local data collection. DiabetesE and The National Diabetes Audit collect data on HbA1c levels.
Outcome
a) DiabetesE and The National Diabetes Audit collect data on HbA1c levels. Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) indicator DM 26 The percentage of patients with diabetes in whom the last IFCC-HbA1c is 59 mmol/mol (equivalent to HbA1c of 7.5% in DCCT values) or less (or equivalent test/reference range depending on local laboratory) in the preceding 15 months.
b) Local data collection. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) collects data on complications associated with diabetes and the English National Screening Programme for Diabetic Retinopathy collects data on incidence and severity of retinopathy in England.

Definitions

The way in which HbA1c results are reported has changed from a percentage (%) to measurement in millimoles per mol (mmol/mol). For further information and a conversion chart please see A change in reporting your HbA~1c~ results. Information for people with diabetes.
Healthcare professionals should document clinical reasons why the usual target for HbA1c, usually between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%) is not appropriate.

Equality and diversity considerations

All information about treatment and care, including agreeing a target for HbA1c, should be tailored to the individual. It should be accessible to people with physical, sensory (for example, visual impairment) or learning disabilities, and to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate. Healthcare professionals will also need to consider cultural and religious requirements in relation to self-management. For example, some religions include periods of fasting, and people with diabetes will need appropriate information about managing their blood glucose levels during these periods.

Medication

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes agree with their healthcare professional to start, review and stop medications to lower blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids in accordance with NICE guidance.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes agree with their healthcare professional to start, review and stop medications to lower blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids in accordance with NICE guidance.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes who have received a medication review in the past 12 months.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving a review of medication in the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes whose blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids are managed in accordance with NICE guidance.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator whose blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids are managed in accordance with NICE guidance.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
c) Proportion of people with diabetes whose medications are not managed according to NICE guidance who have medical notes documenting clinical reasons for exception.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator who have medical notes documenting clinical reasons for exception.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes whose medications are not managed according to NICE guidance.
Outcome
Proportion of people with diabetes with a documented HbA1c between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%).
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator with a documented HbA1c between 48 mmol/mol and 58 mmol/mol (6.5% and 7.5%).
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure that people with diabetes are able to agree with their healthcare professional to start, review and stop medications to lower blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids in accordance with NICE guidance.
Healthcare professionals ensure the person with diabetes understands and agrees with them to start, review and stop medication to lower blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids in accordance with NICE guidance.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that enable the person with diabetes to agree with their healthcare professional to start, stop and review blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipid lowering medications in accordance with NICE guidance.
People with diabetes agree with their healthcare professional to start, review and stop medications to lower blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids (blood fats).

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendations 1.5-1.8.
NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendation sections 1.9 and 1.10.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection. DiabetesE collects data on medication.
Process
a) Local data collection. Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) indicator DM 15 The percentage of patients with diabetes with a diagnosis of proteinuria or micro-albuminuria who are treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (or A2 antagonists).
b) Local data collection. QOF DM 26 The percentage of patients with diabetes in whom the last IFCC-HbA1c is 59 mmol/mol (equivalent to HbA1c of 7.5% in DCCT values) or less (or equivalent test/reference range depending on local laboratory) in the preceding 15 months. QOF DM 31 The percentage of patients with diabetes in whom the last blood pressure is 140/80 or less in the preceding 15 months. QOF indicator DM 17 The percentage of patients with diabetes whose last measured total cholesterol within the previous 15 months is 5mmol/l or less. NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support clinical criteria, criteria 6-21, 23-27, 30 and 34.
Process measure a) and b) will be measured by the next phase of the National Diabetes Audit in which all diabetes medications will be collected at patient level.
c) Local data collection.
Outcome
DiabetesE and The National Diabetes Audit collect data on HbA1c levels. Quality and Outcomes Framework indicator (QOF) DM 26 The percentage of patients with diabetes in whom the last IFCC-HbA1c is 59 mmol/mol (equivalent to HbA1c of 7.5% in DCCT values) or less (or equivalent test/reference range depending on local laboratory) in the preceding 15 months.

Definitions

People with diabetes will start, review and stop medications in accordance with NICE clinical guidance 87 recommendations 1.5-1.8. and NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendation sections 1.9 and 1.10.
Healthcare professionals managing medications for people with diabetes should document the clinical reasons why NICE guidance is not followed for starting and stopping medications to lower blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids.

Insulin therapy

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Trained healthcare professionals initiate and manage therapy with insulin within a structured programme that includes dose titration by the person with diabetes

Quality measure

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements for a structured programme for initiating and managing insulin therapy including training and support for the healthcare professionals and the patients.
b) Evidence of local arrangements and locally agreed criteria for healthcare professionals to demonstrate and document training and competencies in initiating and managing insulin.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes starting insulin therapy that is initiated by a trained healthcare professional.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator starting insulin therapy initiated by a trained healthcare professional.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes requiring insulin therapy.
b) Proportion of healthcare professionals initiating insulin therapy who have documented appropriate training for starting and managing insulin.
Numerator – the number of healthcare professionals in the denominator having documented appropriate training for starting and managing insulin.
Denominator – the number of healthcare professionals initiating and managing insulin therapy.
c) Proportion of people with diabetes who receive ongoing structured support to initiate and manage insulin therapy.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving ongoing support to initiate and manage insulin therapy.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes starting insulin therapy.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure adequate staff training in initiating and managing insulin therapy within a structured programme.
Healthcare professionals ensure they are competent in insulin initiation and ongoing insulin management within a structured programme by accessing training and are able to support people with diabetes in managing their treatment.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that provide training and assess ongoing competency of healthcare professionals for initiating and managing insulin therapy within a structured programme.
People with diabetes who need insulin receive help and support from trained healthcare professionals, including help with starting on insulin and managing their treatment. This should include advice on adjusting the dose of insulin according to their blood sugar levels.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendation 1.7.2.3. (key priority for implementation).
NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendation section 1.9.3.

Data sources

Structure
a) and b) Local data collection. DiabetesE collects data on insulin therapy. Contained within NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support organisational criteria, criterion 6.
Process
a), b) and c) Local data collection.

Definitions

Therapy with insulin includes insulin pump therapy.
A structured programme employing active titration of insulin doses encompasses for the patient:
  • structured education
  • continuing telephone support
  • frequent self-monitoring
  • adjusting doses
  • understanding diet
  • managing hypoglycaemia
  • managing acute changes in plasma glucose control values
  • support from an appropriately trained and experienced healthcare professional
  • injection technique including site selection and care
  • managing sick days.
And should be:
  • evidence-based
  • quality assured
  • built around a structured curriculum
  • delivered by trained educators
  • audited.
Trained healthcare professionals must demonstrate and document appropriate training in initiating and managing insulin therapy. This may include evidence of continuing professional development, knowledge and skills framework (KSF) and evidence of supervision.

Equality and diversity

All information about treatment and care, including insulin therapy, should take into account age and social factors, language, accessibility, physical, sensory or learning difficulties, and should be ethnically and culturally appropriate. It should also be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate. The needs of people who have experienced visual loss should be considered by healthcare professionals initiating and managing insulin therapy, and they may require additional ongoing support and referral to low vision services. Additional support should also be considered for people who have a physical impairment that may impede self-management of insulin.

Complications

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes receive an annual assessment for the risk and presence of the complications of diabetes, and these are managed appropriately.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes are assessed annually for the risk and presence of complications, and these are managed appropriately.
Process
Proportion of people with diabetes who are assessed annually for the risk and presence of complications of diabetes, and these are managed appropriately.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving an assessment for the risk and presence of complications during the previous 12 months and are managed appropriately.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
Outcome
Reduction in the incidence of complications associated with diabetes.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure that diabetes services recall and review people with diabetes for the risk and presence of complications and provide resources to enable assessment and appropriate management.
Healthcare professionals ensure they are competent to assess people with diabetes for the risk and presence of associated complications and manage them appropriately.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that assess for the risk and presence of complications associated with diabetes and manage them appropriately.
People with diabetes are checked for additional health problems associated with diabetes (for example, eye, nerve or kidney damage, cardiovascular disease, fatty deposits in the blood vessels or sexual problems), and for the risk of developing these problems. Any risks or problems identified are properly managed.

Source clinical guideline references

Recommendations on the management of complications associated with diabetes are contained within NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendation sections 1.8 – 1.4 and NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendation sections 1.10 – 1.11.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection. DiabetesE collects data on complications.
Process
Local data collection. DiabetesE collects data on complications.
The National Diabetes Audit collects data on complications. Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) DM 9 The percentage of patients with diabetes with a record of the presence or absence of peripheral pulses in the previous 15 months. QOF indicator DM 10 The percentage of patients with diabetes with a record of neuropathy testing in the previous 15 months. QOF indicator DM 13 The percentage of patients with diabetes who have a record of micro-albuminuria testing in the previous 15 months. QOF indicator 21 The percentage of patients with diabetes who have a record of retinal screening in the previous 15 months. QOF indicator DM 22 The percentage of patients with diabetes who have a record of estimated glomerular filtration rate or serum creatinine testing in the previous 15 months.
Outcome
Local data collection. The National Diabetes Audit and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) collect data on complications associated with diabetes.

Definitions

Complications associated with diabetes may include:
  • retinopathy
  • neuropathy – sensory and autonomic
  • nephropathy
  • cardiovascular disease
  • peripheral arterial disease
  • sexual dysfunction.

Equality and diversity considerations

Services for diabetes should be designed and tailored to take into account local ethnicity and cultural requirements to ensure accessibility to all communities.

Psychological problems

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes are assessed for psychological problems, which are then managed appropriately.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes are assessed for psychological problems, which are then managed appropriately.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes assessed for psychological problems.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving an assessment for psychological problems in the past 12 months.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes and psychological problems whose psychological problem is managed appropriately.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator whose psychological problem is managed appropriately.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes and psychological problems.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure that diabetes services assess and appropriately manage psychological problems in people with diabetes.
Healthcare professionals ensure they have adequate training to assess psychological problems in people with diabetes and are familiar with referral pathways to ensure psychological problems are managed appropriately.
Commissioners ensure they commission diabetes services that assess and appropriately manage psychological problems in people with diabetes.
People with diabetes are checked for psychological problems (such as depression, anxiety, fear of low blood sugar, eating disorders and problems coping with the diagnosis) and any problems identified are properly managed.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 87 recommendation 1.2.2.1.
NICE clinical guideline 91 recommendation section 1.1.3.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection.
Process
a) Local data collection. Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) DEP 1 The percentage of patients on the diabetes register and/or the CHD register for whom case finding for depression has been undertaken on one occasion during the previous 15 months using two standard screening questions.
b) Local data collection.

Definitions

Psychological problems in people with diabetes may include:
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • injection-related anxieties
  • fear of hypoglycaemia
  • eating disorders
  • problems coping with diagnosis.

Equality and diversity considerations

Treatment and care should take into account a patient's needs and preferences. People with psychological problems and diabetes should have the opportunity to make informed decisions, including advance decisions and advance statements, about their care and treatment, in partnership with their practitioners. If patients do not have the capacity to make decisions, practitioners should follow the Department of Health's advice on consent and the code of practice that accompanies the Mental Capacity Act.

At-risk foot

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes with or at risk of foot ulceration receive regular review by a foot protection team in accordance with NICE guidance, and those with a foot problem requiring urgent medical attention are referred to and treated by a multidisciplinary foot care team within 24 hours.

Quality measure

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes with or at risk of foot ulceration receive regular review by a foot protection team in accordance with NICE guidance.
b) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes with a foot problem requiring medical attention are treated by a multidisciplinary foot care team within 24 hours.
Process
a) Proportion of people with diabetes with foot ulceration who receive regular review by a foot protection team in accordance with NICE guidance.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator who receive regular review by a foot protection team in accordance with NICE guidance.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes with foot ulceration.
b) Proportion of people with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration who receive regular review by a foot protection team in accordance with NICE guidance.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator who receive regular review by a foot protection team in accordance with NICE guidance.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration.
c) Proportion of people with diabetes with a foot problem requiring urgent medical attention referred to and treated by a multidisciplinary foot care team within 24 hours.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator referred to and treated by a multidisciplinary foot care team within 24 hours.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes with a foot problem requiring urgent medical attention.
d) Proportion of people with diabetes with an urgent foot problem referred to a multidisciplinary foot care team who are treated in accordance with NICE guidance.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator treated in accordance with NICE guidance.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes with an urgent foot problem referred to a multidisciplinary foot care team.
Outcome
a) Reduction in incidence of foot ulceration.
b) Reduction in lower limb amputation rates.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure access to appropriate treatment and review by a foot protection team for people with diabetes with or at risk of foot ulceration in accordance with NICE guidance, and ensure adequate systems and services are in place for referring people with diabetes who have a foot problem requiring urgent medical attention from primary care to a multidisciplinary foot care team within 24 hours.
Healthcare professionals ensure they identify and manage people with diabetes with or at risk of foot ulceration in accordance with NICE guidance, and ensure they are aware of local arrangements for accessing a multidisciplinary foot care team within 24 hours for people with diabetes who have a foot problem requiring urgent medical attention.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that provide access to regular review by a foot protection team for people with diabetes with or at risk of foot ulceration in accordance with NICE guidance, and that provide access to a multidisciplinary foot care team for people with diabetes who have a foot problem requiring urgent medical attention within 24 hours.
People with diabetes who have foot ulcers, or are at risk of developing foot ulcers, have regular check-ups from a team specialising in foot protection, and are seen and treated by a specialist healthcare team within 24 hours if they have foot problems needing urgent medical attention.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 10 recommendations 1.1.4.3, 1.1.5.2, 1.1.5.3, 1.1.5.4, 1.1.5.5 (key priorities for implementation), 1.1.4.1, 1.1.5.1 and 1.1.6.11.
NICE clinical guideline 119 recommendations 1.2.3, 1.2.4 (key priority for implementation) and 1.2.9.

Data source

Structure
a) and b) DiabetesE collects data on foot services.
This will also be included in the National Diabetes Footcare Audit from 2013.
Process
a) and b) Local data collection. Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) DM 9 The percentage of patients with diabetes with a record of the presence or absence of peripheral pulses in the previous 15 months. QOF indicator DM 10 The percentage of patients with diabetes with a record of neuropathy testing in the previous 15 months. QOF indicator DM 13
c) and d) Local data collection. The process measures will also be included in the National Diabetes Footcare Audit from 2013.
Outcome
a) Local data collection.
b) The National Centre for Health Outcomes Development measures admissions to hospital of patients with diabetes where a lower limb amputation is undertaken.
Further structure and process data is being developed within the pilot phase of the new National Diabetes Foot-Care Audit and full implementation is planned within NDA2 from 2013.

Definitions

(NICE clinical guideline 10, recommendation 1.1.2.4 classifies foot risk as:
  • low current risk (normal sensation, palpable pulses)
  • at increased risk (neuropathy or absent pulses or other risk factor)
  • at high risk (neuropathy or absent pulses plus deformity or skin changes or previous ulcer
  • ulcerated foot.
NICE clinical guideline 10, recommendation 1.1.4.1 defines a 'foot protection team' as a team with expertise in protecting the foot, typically including podiatrists, orthotists and foot care specialists.
NICE clinical guideline 119 recommendations 1.2.3 and 1.2.4 state that the multidisciplinary foot care team should consist of healthcare professionals with the specialist skills and competencies necessary to deliver inpatient care for patients with diabetic foot problems and should normally include a diabetologist, a surgeon with relevant expertise in managing diabetic foot problems, a diabetes nurse specialist, a podiatrist and a tissue viability nurse, and should have access to specialist services.
Regular review will be in accordance with NICE guidance if it follows NICE clinical guideline 10 recommendations 1.1.4.1-1.1.5.5
Urgent foot problems will be managed in accordance with NICE guidance if treatment follows NICE clinical guideline 10 recommendations 1.1.6.1-1.1.6.11 and NICE clinical guideline 119 recommendations section 1.2.

Inpatient care

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes admitted to hospital are cared for by appropriately trained staff, provided with access to a specialist diabetes team, and given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that all inpatients with diabetes are cared for by appropriately trained staff, provided with access to a specialist diabetes team, and given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.
Process
a) Proportion of staff on inpatient wards who are appropriately trained to care for people with diabetes.
Numerator – the number of staff in the denominator appropriately trained in the care of people with diabetes.
Denominator – the number of staff on inpatient wards.
b) Proportion of inpatients with diabetes who are provided with access to a specialist diabetes team.
Numerator – the number of inpatients in the denominator provided with access to a specialist diabetes team.
Denominator – the number of inpatients with diabetes.
c) Proportion of inpatients with diabetes on insulin therapy who are given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.
Numerator – the number of inpatients in the denominator given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.
Denominator – the number of inpatients with diabetes on insulin therapy.
Outcomes
a) Reduction in incidents relating to insulin causing harm.
b) Increase in patient satisfaction with their care in hospital.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure adequate staff training in diabetes care and access to a specialist diabetes team where required to ensure people with diabetes admitted to hospital are cared for by appropriately trained staff, provided with access to a specialist diabetes team, and given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.
Healthcare professionals ensure they are skilled and appropriately trained to care for people with diabetes and have access to a specialist diabetes team, and ensure that people with diabetes have the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.
Commissioners ensure they commission secondary services that assess the competency of the workforce, and have adequate staff education programmes to ensure people with diabetes admitted to hospital are cared for by appropriately trained staff, provided with access to a specialist diabetes team, and given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin.
People with diabetes who are admitted to hospital are cared for by trained staff, including a specialist diabetes team if needed, and are given the choice of self-monitoring their blood sugar levels and, for those on insulin therapy, managing their own insulin.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendations 1.12.3.1-1.12.3.4.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection. DiabetesE collects data on inpatient care.
Process
a), b) and c) Local data collection. The National Diabetes Audit collects data on inpatient care.
Outcome
a) The National Patient Safety Agency National Reporting and Learning System collect data on incidents relating to insulin causing harm.
b) The National Diabetes Inpatient Audit collects data on the clinical care and experiences of people with diabetes who were inpatients in hospital.

Definitions

'Appropriately trained staff' are defined as those with specific competencies in caring for people with diabetes.
People with diabetes admitted to hospital should be given the choice of self-monitoring and managing their own insulin as appropriate to the person with diabetes.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis receive educational and psychological support prior to discharge and are followed up by a specialist diabetes team.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis receive educational and psychological support prior to discharge and are followed up by a specialist diabetes team.
Process
a) Proportion of people admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis who receive educational and psychological support by a specialist diabetes team prior to discharge.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving educational and psychological support by a specialist diabetes team prior to discharge.
Denominator – the number of people admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis.
b) Proportion of people admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis who receive follow-up within 30 days after discharge by a specialist diabetes team.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator receiving follow-up within 30 days after discharge by a specialist diabetes team.
Denominator – the number of people discharged from hospital following an admission for diabetic ketoacidosis.
Outcome
Reduction in readmission rates within 12 months for people admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure patients admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis receive educational and psychological support prior to discharge with follow-up after discharge by a specialist diabetes team.
Healthcare professionals ensure they know how to access a specialist diabetes team for all patients admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis that provides educational and psychological support prior to discharge.
Commissioners ensure they commission a service providing access to a specialist diabetes team prior to a patient's discharge with follow-up after discharge for all patients admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis.
People with diabetes admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition caused by a shortage of insulin) receive information and psychological support from a specialist diabetes team before and after they leave hospital.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendations 1.12.3.1.and 1.12.5.1.

Data source

Structure
Local data collection.
Process
a) and b) Local data collection.
Outcome
Local data collection. The National Diabetes Audit measures the incidence, prevalence and re-occurrence of ketoacidosis. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) collects data on readmission rates.

Definitions

The opinion of the Topic Expert Group is that follow-up for people admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis should take place within 30 days of discharge by a specialist diabetes team.

Equality and diversity

All information about treatment and care, including advice on avoiding diabetic ketoacidosis, should take into account age and social factors, language, accessibility, physical, sensory or learning difficulties, and should be ethnically and culturally appropriate. It should also be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate.

Hypoglycaemia

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

People with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention are referred to a specialist diabetes team.

Quality measure

Structure
Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that people with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention are referred to a specialist diabetes team.
Process
Proportion of people with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention who are referred to a specialist diabetes team.
Numerator – the number of people in the denominator referred to a specialist diabetes team.
Denominator – the number of people with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention.
Outcome
a) Reduction in number of people with diabetes requiring medical attention as a result of a hypoglycaemic episode.
b) Reduction in rate of recurrence of an episode of hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention over 12 months.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure adequate provision for referral to a specialist diabetes team for people with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention.
Healthcare professionals ensure people with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention are referred to a specialist diabetes team.
Commissioners ensure they commission services that have clearly defined protocols to identify all people with diabetes who have experienced hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention and refer them to a specialist diabetes team.
People with diabetes are seen by a specialist diabetes team for advice and support after experiencing low blood sugar needing medical attention (for example, from a GP, paramedic, accident and emergency department or out-of-hours services).

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 15 recommendations 1.9.5.5 and 1.9.5.7

Data source

Structure
Local data collection. DiabetesE collects data on hypoglycaemia.
Process
Local data collection.
Outcome
a) and b) Local data collection.

Definitions

'Hypoglycaemia requiring medical attention' refers to an episode of severe hypoglycaemia that requires treatment by a GP, paramedics, accident and emergency department or out-of-hours services.

Equality and diversity

All information about treatment and care, including advice on avoiding hypoglycaemia, should take into account age and social factors, language, accessibility, physical, sensory or learning difficulties, and should be ethnically and culturally appropriate. It should also be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. If needed, people with diabetes should have access to an interpreter or advocate.

Preconception care

This quality statement is taken from the diabetes in adults quality standard. The quality standard defines clinical best practice in diabetes care and should be read in full.

Quality statement

Women of childbearing age with diabetes are regularly informed of the benefits of preconception glycaemic control and of any risks, including medication that may harm an unborn child. Women with diabetes planning a pregnancy are offered preconception care and those not planning a pregnancy are offered advice on contraception.

Quality measure

Structure
a) Evidence of local arrangements to ensure that women of childbearing age with diabetes are regularly informed about the benefits of preconception glycaemic control and of any risks, including medication which may harm an unborn child.
b) Evidence that women with diabetes planning a pregnancy are offered preconception care.
c) Evidence that women with diabetes not planning a pregnancy are offered advice on contraception.
Process
a) Proportion of women of childbearing age with diabetes who are regularly informed about the benefits of preconception glycaemic control and of any risks including medication that may harm an unborn child.
Numerator – the number of women in the denominator informed about preconception glycaemic control and of any risks including medication that may harm an unborn child at their last diabetes consultation.
Denominator – the number of women of childbearing age with diabetes.
b) Proportion of women of childbearing age with diabetes planning a pregnancy who are offered preconception care from an appropriately trained healthcare professional.
Numerator – the number of women in the denominator offered preconception care from an appropriately trained healthcare professional.
Denominator – the number of women of childbearing age with diabetes planning a pregnancy.
c) Proportion of women of childbearing age with diabetes not planning a pregnancy who are offered advice on contraception.
Numerator – the number of women in the denominator offered advice on contraception.
Denominator – the number of women with diabetes not planning a pregnancy.

Description of what the quality statement means for each audience

Service providers ensure local arrangements that provide information to women of childbearing age with diabetes on preconception glycaemic control and any risks including medication that may harm an unborn child, and ensure women with diabetes planning a pregnancy are offered preconception care, and those not planning a pregnancy are offered advice on contraception.
Healthcare professionals ensure women with diabetes of childbearing age are provided with information on preconception glycaemic control and on any risks including medication that may harm an unborn child, and are offered preconception care if they are planning a pregnancy or offered advice on contraception if they are not planning a pregnancy.
Commissioners ensure they commission care pathways that provide preconception advice for women of childbearing age with diabetes, and offer preconception care for women with diabetes planning a pregnancy and advice on contraception for those not planning a pregnancy.
Women of childbearing age who have diabetes are regularly given advice about the benefits of controlling their blood sugar before a pregnancy, and any risks such as medication that might harm an unborn baby. Women with diabetes who are planning a pregnancy are offered care leading up to the pregnancy. Women not planning a pregnancy are offered advice on contraception.

Source clinical guideline references

NICE clinical guideline 63 recommendation 1.1.1.2.

Data source

Structure
a), b) and c) Local data collection. Contained within NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support organisational criteria, criteria 1-3.
Process
a), b) and c) Local data collection. NICE clinical guideline 87 Audit support clinical criteria, criterion 36.
A pregestational diabetes audit which is currently being piloted and rolled out in 2012 as part of the next phase of the National Diabetes Audit includes the relevant structure and process measures.

Definitions

Medication that may harm an unborn child includes, but is not limited to:
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists
  • statins
  • oral anti-diabetes hypoglycaemic agents with the exception of metformin.
'Women of childbearing age with diabetes' refers to all women with diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) who have childbearing potential.

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Effective interventions library

Successful effective interventions library details

Implementation

Commissioning

These resources include support for commissioners to plan for costs and savings of guidance implementation and meeting quality standards where they apply.
These resources will help to inform discussions with providers about the development of services and may include measurement and action planning tools.

Education and learning

NICE produces resources for individual practitioners, teams and those with a role in education to help improve and assess users' knowledge of relevant NICE guidance and its application in practice.

Service improvement and audit

These resources provide help with planning ahead for NICE guidance, understanding where you are now, and conducting improvement initiatives.

Pathway information

Information for the public

NICE produces information for the public that summarises, in plain English, the recommendations that NICE makes to healthcare and other professionals.
NICE has written information for the public explaining its guidance on each of the following topics.

Patient-centred care

Patients and healthcare professionals have rights and responsibilities as set out in the NHS Constitution for England – all NICE guidance is written to reflect these. Treatment and care should take into account individual needs and preferences. People should have the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and treatment, in partnership with their healthcare professionals. If someone does not have the capacity to make decisions, healthcare professionals should follow the Department of Health's advice on consent, the code of practice that accompanies the Mental Capacity Act and the supplementary code of practice on deprivation of liberty safeguards. In Wales, healthcare professionals should follow advice on consent from the Welsh Government.
If the person is under 16, healthcare professionals should follow the guidelines in Seeking consent: working with children. If a young person is moving between paediatric and adult services their care should be planned and managed according to the best practice guidance described in the Department of Health's Transition: getting it right for young people.

Supporting information

MetforminMetformin is used in UK clinical practice in the management of diabetes in pregnancy and lactation. There is strong evidence for its effectiveness and safety, which is presented in the full guideline on diabetes in pregnancy. This evidence was not reflected in the SPC when this pathway was created (May 2011). The SPC advises that when a patient plans to become pregnant and during pregnancy, diabetes should not be treated with metformin but insulin should be used to maintain blood glucose levels. Informed consent on the use of metformin in these situations should be obtained and documented. may be used before and during pregnancy, as well as or instead of insulin, if the likely benefits from improved glycaemic control outweigh the potential for harm.
Data from clinical trials and other sources do not suggest that the rapid-acting insulin analogues (aspart and lispro) adversely affect pregnancy or the health of the fetus or newborn baby.
Evidence about the use of long-acting insulin analogues during pregnancy is limited. Isophane (NPH) insulin is the first-choice long-acting insulin during pregnancy.
Before or as soon as pregnancy is confirmed:
  • stop oral hypoglycaemic agents, apart from metformin, and commence insulin if required
  • stop angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists and consider alternative antihypertensives
  • stop statins.
Retinal assessment should be carried out by digital imaging with mydriasis using tropicamide.
Offer individualised monitoring of fetal wellbeing to women at risk of intrauterine growth restriction (those with macrovascular disease or nephropathy).
Do not offer tests of fetal wellbeing before 38 weeks, unless there is a risk of intrauterine growth restriction.

Glossary

Paths in this pathway

Pathway created: May 2011 Last updated: September 2014

© NICE 2014

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