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Hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease

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What is covered

This interactive flowchart covers the management of hyperphosphataemia in children, young people and adults with stage 4 or 5 CKD.
CKD describes abnormal kidney function and/or structure. It is common and often exists together with other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
As kidney dysfunction advances, there is a higher risk of mortality and some comorbidities become more severe. Hyperphosphataemia is one example of this, and is because of insufficient filtering of phosphate from the blood by poorly functioning kidneys. This means that a certain amount of the phosphate does not leave the body in the urine, instead remaining in the blood at abnormally elevated levels.
High serum phosphate levels can directly and indirectly increase parathyroid hormone secretion, leading to the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Left untreated, secondary hyperparathyroidism increases morbidity and mortality and may lead to renal bone disease, with people experiencing bone and muscular pain, increased incidence of fracture, abnormalities of bone and joint morphology, and vascular and soft tissue calcification.
Standard management of hyperphosphataemia involves the use of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, as well as the provision of education and support. However, there is wide variation between renal centres in the UK in how these interventions are used.
Where it refers to children and young people, this interactive flowchart applies to all people younger than 18 years old. Where it refers to adults, this applies to all people 18 years or older.
This interactive flowchart also includes a quality standard that covers the identification, assessment and clinical management of CKD in adults including the management of established renal failure.
For further information, see what NICE says on the early identification and management of chronic kidney disease in adults in primary and secondary care, and anaemia management in people with chronic kidney disease.

Updates

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Short Text

Everything NICE has said on managing hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease in an interactive flowchart

What is covered

This interactive flowchart covers the management of hyperphosphataemia in children, young people and adults with stage 4 or 5 CKD.
CKD describes abnormal kidney function and/or structure. It is common and often exists together with other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
As kidney dysfunction advances, there is a higher risk of mortality and some comorbidities become more severe. Hyperphosphataemia is one example of this, and is because of insufficient filtering of phosphate from the blood by poorly functioning kidneys. This means that a certain amount of the phosphate does not leave the body in the urine, instead remaining in the blood at abnormally elevated levels.
High serum phosphate levels can directly and indirectly increase parathyroid hormone secretion, leading to the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Left untreated, secondary hyperparathyroidism increases morbidity and mortality and may lead to renal bone disease, with people experiencing bone and muscular pain, increased incidence of fracture, abnormalities of bone and joint morphology, and vascular and soft tissue calcification.
Standard management of hyperphosphataemia involves the use of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, as well as the provision of education and support. However, there is wide variation between renal centres in the UK in how these interventions are used.
Where it refers to children and young people, this interactive flowchart applies to all people younger than 18 years old. Where it refers to adults, this applies to all people 18 years or older.
This interactive flowchart also includes a quality standard that covers the identification, assessment and clinical management of CKD in adults including the management of established renal failure.
For further information, see what NICE says on the early identification and management of chronic kidney disease in adults in primary and secondary care, and anaemia management in people with chronic kidney disease.

Sources

NICE guidance and other sources used to create this interactive flowchart.

Quality standards

Quality statements

Effective interventions library

Effective interventions library

Successful effective interventions library details

Implementation

NICE has produced resources to help implement its guidance on:

Information for the public

NICE has written information for the public on each of the following topics.

Pathway information

Person-centred care

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care.
Making decisions using NICE guidelines explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Your responsibility

Guidelines

The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Technology appraisals

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this interactive flowchart is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to provide the funding required to enable the recommendations to be applied when individual health professionals and their patients wish to use it, in accordance with the NHS Constitution. They should do so in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Medical technologies guidance, diagnostics guidance and interventional procedures guidance

The recommendations in this interactive flowchart represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take these recommendations fully into account. However, the interactive flowchart does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the recommendations, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this interactive flowchart should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

Supporting information

Glossary

chronic kidney disease

Paths in this pathway

Pathway created: March 2013 Last updated: July 2017

© NICE 2017

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